Frasi di Marvin Minsky
Data di nascita: 9. Agosto 1927
Data di morte: 24. Gennaio 2016
Altri nomi:Mārvins Minskis,ماروین مینسکی,Marvin Lee Minsky
Marvin Lee Minsky è stato un matematico e scienziato statunitense specializzato nel campo dell'intelligenza artificiale . Fu cofondatore dell'Artificial Intelligence Project presso il Massachusetts Institute of Technology di Cambridge e autore di numerosi testi riguardanti l'AI e la filosofia.
Frasi Marvin Minsky
„Riassumendo: ovviamente nessun computer riuscirebbe a capire qualcosa di reale – o anche cosa sia un numero – se forzato a farlo seguendo un unico modo di occuparsene. Ma non lo potrebbe fare nemmeno un bambino o un filosofo. E così, queste problematiche non riguardano soltanto i computer, ma la nostra stupida ricerca di significati assoluti, al di fuori di ogni contesto. Le nostre domande sulle macchine che pensano, dovrebbero effettivamente essere domande sulla nostra stessa mente.“
„Noi usiamo il termine 'coscienza' in molti modi per parlare di molte cose differenti. Eri consapevole di aver appena sorriso? Sei consapevole di essere qui in questa stanza? Eri consapevole di quello che stavi dicendo, o di come muovevi le mani? Alcuni filosofi parlano della coscienza come di una singola misteriosa entità che connette la nostra mente col resto del mondo. Ma 'coscienza' è solo un nome che indica una valigia di metodi che noi adoperiamo per pensare sulla nostra stessa mente. In quella valigia c'è un assortimento di cose le cui distinzioni e differenze noi confondiamo dando a tutte lo stesso nome.“
„A computer is like a violin. You can imagine a novice trying ﬁrst a phonograph and then a violin. The latter, he says, sounds terrible. That is the argument we have heard from our humanists and most of our computer scientists. Computer programs are good, they say, for particular purposes, but they aren’t ﬂexible. Neither is a violin, or a typewriter, until you learn how to use it.“
— Marvin Minsky, The Society of Mind
„We shouldn't let our envy of distinguished masters of the arts distract us from the wonder of how each of us gets new ideas. Perhaps we hold on to our superstitions about creativity in order to make our own deficiencies seem more excusable. For when we tell ourselves that masterful abilities are simply unexplainable, we're also comforting ourselves by saying that those superheroes come endowed with all the qualities we don't possess. Our failures are therefore no fault of our own, nor are those heroes' virtues to their credit, either. If it isn't learned, it isn't earned.
When we actually meet the heroes whom our culture views as great, we don't find any singular propensities––only combinations of ingredients quite common in themselves. Most of these heroes are intensely motivated, but so are many other people. They're usually very proficient in some field--but in itself we simply call this craftmanship or expertise. They often have enough self-confidence to stand up to the scorn of peers--but in itself, we might just call that stubbornness. They surely think of things in some novel ways, but so does everyone from time to time. And as for what we call "intelligence", my view is that each person who can speak coherently already has the better part of what our heroes have. Then what makes genius appear to stand apart, if we each have most of what it takes?
I suspect that genius needs one thing more: in order to accumulate outstanding qualities, one needs unusually effective ways to learn. It's not enough to learn a lot; one also has to manage what one learns. Those masters have, beneath the surface of their mastery, some special knacks of "higher-order" expertise, which help them organize and apply the things they learn. It is those hidden tricks of mental management that produce the systems that create those works of genius. Why do certain people learn so many more and better skills? These all-important differences could begin with early accidents. One child works out clever ways to arrange some blocks in rows and stacks; a second child plays at rearranging how it thinks. Everyone can praise the first child's castles and towers, but no one can see what the second child has done, and one may even get the false impression of a lack of industry. But if the second child persists in seeking better ways to learn, this can lead to silent growth in which some better ways to learn may lead to better ways to learn to learn. Then, later, we'll observe an awesome, qualitative change, with no apparent cause--and give to it some empty name like talent, aptitude, or gift.“
— Marvin Minsky, The Society of Mind
„In any case, I hope that it will be a good thing when we understand how our minds are built, and how they support the modes of thought that we like to call emotions. Then we'll be better able to decide what we like about them, and what we don't—and bit by bit we'll rebuild ourselves. I don't think that most people will bother with this, because they like themselves just as they are. Perhaps they are not selfish enough, or imaginative, or ambitious. Myself, I don't much like how people are now. We're too shallow, slow, and ignorant. I hope that our future will lead us to ideas that we can use to improve ourselves.“
„But, somehow, I have got to make both of these things just and right to me. I have got to make everything that has happened to me good for me. The plank bed, the loathsome food, the hard ropes, the harsh orders, the dreadful dress that makes sorrow grotesque to look at, the silence, the solitude, the shame—each and all of these things I had to transform into a spiritual experience. There is not a single degradation of the body which I must not try and make into a spiritualizing of the soul.“
— Marvin Minsky, The Emotion Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of the Human Mind