Frasi di Mosè Maimonide

Mosè Maimonide photo
6   1

Mosè Maimonide

Data di nascita: 30. Marzo 1138
Data di morte: 13. Dicembre 1204

Moshe ben Maimon, più noto nell'Europa medievale col nome di Mosè Maimònide , è stato un filosofo, rabbino, medico, talmudista, giurista spagnolo, una delle personalità di spicco dell'Andalusia sotto il dominio arabo, tra i più importanti pensatori nella storia dell'ebraismo.

Conosciuto anche con l'acronimo di Rambam , Mosè Maimonide divenne, grazie al suo enorme lavoro di analisi del Talmud e sistematizzazione dell'Halakhah, il rabbino e filosofo ebreo di maggior prestigio ed influenza del Medioevo; le sue opere di diritto ebraico vengono ancora oggi ritenute le migliori nell'ortodossia, e sono, insieme al commentario di Rashi, un caposaldo indispensabile della letteratura rabbinica. Wikipedia

Foto: Blaisio Ugolino, Rambam Institute / Public domain

Frasi Mosè Maimonide

„Non si dovrebbe credere che tutti gli esseri viventi esistano per il bene dell'uomo. Al contrario, anche tutti gli altri esseri viventi sono stati voluti per il loro stesso bene e non per il bene di qualcos'altro.“

—  Mosè Maimonide

Origine: Citato in Will Tuttle, Cibo per la pace, traduzione di Marta Mariotto, Sonda, Casale Monferrato, 2014, p. 43. ISBN 978-88-7106-742-1

„This is the way how we have to understand the accounts of trials; we must not think that God desires to examine us and to try us in order to know what He did not know before.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.24
Contesto: This is the way how we have to understand the accounts of trials; we must not think that God desires to examine us and to try us in order to know what He did not know before. Far is this from Him; He is far above that which ignorant and foolish people imagine concerning Him, in the evil of their thoughts. Note this.

„The strange and wonderful Book of Job treats of the same subject as we are discussing; its contents are a fiction, conceived for the purpose of explaining the different opinions which people hold on Divine Providence. …This fiction, however, is in so far different from other fictions that it includes profound ideas and great mysteries, removes great doubts, and reveals the most important truths.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.22
Contesto: The strange and wonderful Book of Job treats of the same subject as we are discussing; its contents are a fiction, conceived for the purpose of explaining the different opinions which people hold on Divine Providence.... This fiction, however, is in so far different from other fictions that it includes profound ideas and great mysteries, removes great doubts, and reveals the most important truths. I will discuss it as fully as possible; and I will also tell you the words of our Sages that suggested to me the explanation of this great poem.

„It is no wrong or injustice that one has many“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.12
Contesto: It is no wrong or injustice that one has many bags of the finest myrrh and garments embroidered with gold, while another has not those things, which are not necessary for our maintenance; he who has them has not thereby obtained control over anything that could be an essential addition to his nature, but has only obtained something illusory or deceptive.... This is the rule at all times and in all places; no notice should be taken of exceptional cases, as we have explained.

„They built temples, placed in them images, and assumed that the stars sent forth their influence upon these images, which are thereby enabled (to speak) to understand, to comprehend, to inspire human beings, and to tell them what is useful to them.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.29
Contesto: In accordance with the Sabean theories images were erected to the stars, golden images to the sun, images of silver to the moon, and they attributed the metals and the climates to the influence of the planets, saying that a certain planet is the god of a certain zone. They built temples, placed in them images, and assumed that the stars sent forth their influence upon these images, which are thereby enabled (to speak) to understand, to comprehend, to inspire human beings, and to tell them what is useful to them. They apply the same to trees which fall to the lot of these stars.

„The theory of man's perfectly free will is one of the fundamental principles of the Law of our teacher Moses“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.17
Contesto: Fifth Theory.—This is our theory, or that of our Law.... The theory of man's perfectly free will is one of the fundamental principles of the Law of our teacher Moses, and of those who follow the Law. According to this principle man does what is in his power to do, by his nature, his choice, and his will; and his action is not due to any faculty created for the purpose. All species of irrational animals likewise move by their own free will. This is the Will of God; that is to say, it is due to the eternal divine will that all living beings should move freely, and that man should have the power to act according to his will or choice within the limits of his capacity.

„Whatever is formed of matter receives the most perfect form possible in that species of matter; in each individual case the defects are in accordance with that individual matter.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Compare Gottfried Leibniz argument for the "best of all possible worlds" in his Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil
Ch.12
Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III
Contesto: Galen, in the third section of his book, "The Use of the Limbs," says correctly that it would be in vain to expect to see living beings formed of the blood of menstruous women and the semen virile, who will not die, will never feel pain, or will move perpetually, or shine like the sun. This dictum of Galen is part of the following more general proposition:—Whatever is formed of matter receives the most perfect form possible in that species of matter; in each individual case the defects are in accordance with that individual matter.

„To what may he be compared? To a flickering flame, which is extinguished as soon as one touches it. Whoever closes the eyes of the dying while the soul is about to depart is shedding blood.“

—  Maimónides

Biomedical Ethics and Jewish Law http://www.myjewishlearning.com/ideas_belief/bioethics/Bioethics_Euthanasia_TO/Bioethics_EuthanMedi_Rosner.htm, published by KTAV http://www.ktav.com/
Contesto: One who is in a dying condition is regarded as a living person in all respects. It is not permitted to bind his jaws, to stop up the organs of the lower extremities, or to place metallic or cooling vessels upon his navel in order to prevent swelling. He is not to be rubbed or washed, nor is sand or salt to be put upon him until he expires. He who touches him is guilty of shedding blood. To what may he be compared? To a flickering flame, which is extinguished as soon as one touches it. Whoever closes the eyes of the dying while the soul is about to depart is shedding blood. One should wait a while; perhaps he is only in a swoon.

„Those who desire to be men in truth“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.8
Contesto: Those who desire to be men in truth, and not brutes, having only the appearance and shape of men, must constantly endeavor to reduce the wants of the body, such as eating, love, drinking, anger, and all manners originating in lust and passion; they must feel ashamed of them and set limits to them for themselves.

„These sublime and profound themes admit of no proof whatever… In all questions that cannot be demonstrated, we must adopt the method which we have adopted in this question about God's Omniscience. Note it.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.21
Contesto: He fully knows His unchangeable essence, and has thus a knowledge of all that results from any of His acts. If we were to try to understand in what manner this is done, it would be the same as if we tried to be the same as God, and to make our knowledge identical with His knowledge. Those who seek the truth, and admit what is true, must believe that nothing is hidden from God; that everything is revealed to His knowledge, which is identical with His essence; that this kind of knowledge cannot be comprehended by us; for if we knew its method, we would possess that intellect by which such knowledge could be acquired.... Note this well, for I think that this is an excellent idea, and leads to correct views; no error will be found in it; no dialectical argument; it does not lead to any absurd conclusion, nor to ascribing any defect to God. These sublime and profound themes admit of no proof whatever... In all questions that cannot be demonstrated, we must adopt the method which we have adopted in this question about God's Omniscience. Note it.

„Job abandoned his first very erroneous opinion, and himself proved that it was an error.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.23
Contesto: The words of God are justified, as I will show, by the fact that Job abandoned his first very erroneous opinion, and himself proved that it was an error. It is the opinion which suggests itself as plausible at first thought, especially in the minds of those who meet with mishap, well knowing that they have not merited them through sins. This is admitted by all, and therefore this opinion was assigned to Job. But he is represented to hold this view only so long as he was without wisdom, and knew God only by tradition, in the same manner as religious people generally know Him. As soon as he had acquired a true knowledge of God, he confessed that there is undoubtedly true felicity in the knowledge of God; it is attained by all who acquire that knowledge, and no earthly trouble can disturb it. So long as Job's knowledge of God was based on tradition and communication, and not on research, he believed that such imaginary good as is possessed in health, riches, and children, was the utmost that men can attain; this was the reason why he was in perplexity, and why he uttered the... opinions, and this is also the meaning of his words: "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear; but now mine eye seeth thee. Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent because of dust and ashes" (xlii. 5, 6); that is to say, he abhorred all that he had desired before, and that he was sorry that he had been in dust and ashes; comp. "and he sat down among the ashes" (ii. 8) On account of this last utterance, which implies true perception, it is said afterwards in reference to him, "for you have not spoken of me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath."

„The second class of evils comprises such evils as people cause to each other, when, e.g., some of them use their strength against others.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.12
Contesto: The second class of evils comprises such evils as people cause to each other, when, e. g., some of them use their strength against others. These evils are more numerous than those of the first kind... they likewise originate in ourselves, though the sufferer himself cannot avert them.

„Thus all precepts cautioning against idolatry, or against that which is connected therewith, leads to it, or is related to it, are evidently useful.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.29
Contesto: You know from the repeated declarations in the Law that the principal purpose of the whole Law was the removal and utter destruction of idolatry, and all that is connected therewith, even its name, and everything that might lead to any such practices, e. g., acting as a consulter with familiar spirits, or as a wizard, passing children through the fire, divining, observing the clouds, enchanting, charming, or inquiring of the dead. The law prohibits us to imitate the heathen in any of these deeds, and a fortiori to adopt them entirely. It is distinctly said in the Law that everything which idolaters consider as service to their gods, and a means of approaching them, is rejected and despised by God... Thus all precepts cautioning against idolatry, or against that which is connected therewith, leads to it, or is related to it, are evidently useful.

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