„With the advent of medieval Scholasticism, … we find a clear distinction between theologia and philosophia.“

—  Pierre Hadot, La Philosophie comme manière de vivre (2001), Theology became conscious of its autonomy qua supreme science, which philosophy was emptied of its spiritual exercises, which, from now on, were relegated to Christian mysticism and ethics. Reduced to the rank of a “handmaid of theology,” philosophy’s role was henceforth to furnish theology with conceptual—and hence purely theoretical—material. When, in the modern age, philosophy regained its autonomy, it still retained many features inherited from this medieval conception. In particular, it maintained its purely theoretical character, which even evolved in the direction of a more and more thorough systemization. Not until Nietzsche, Bergson, and existentialism does philosophy consciously return to being a concrete attitude, a way of life and of seeing the world. trans. Michael Chase (1995), p. 107
Pierre Hadot photo
Pierre Hadot
filosofo e scrittore francese 1922 - 2010

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—  James D. Mooney American businessman 1884 - 1957
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„What is more important is that these are not separate or distinct threats. When we scratch the surface, we find them closely connected and interrelated.“

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