Frasi di Muhammad di Ghur

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Muhammad di Ghur

Data di nascita: 1160
Data di morte: 1206

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Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad, noto anche come Muḥammad Ghūrī, in urdu شہاب الدین غوری, ossia Shihāb al-Dīn Ghūrī , è stato uno dei protagonisti dell'affermazione dell'Islam nell'India settentrionale.

Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad di Ghūr , fu uno dei sovrani della dinastia Ghuride, che dominò su un territorio che abbraccia gli odierni Afghanistan, Pakistan e India settentrionale.

L'ambizioso tagico Muḥammad Ghūrī ereditò il potere del fratello Ghiyāth al-Dīn Muḥammad e trasformò il suo piccolo Stato di Ghor in un vasto impero. Assorbì innanzi tutto il territorio dei Ghaznavidi, poi lo dilatò con operazioni belliche impadronendosi del settentrione indiano e del Bengala.

Nel 1173, Muḥammad fu nominato governatore di Ghazna, assoggettata da suo fratello, e continuò a razziare a est il territorio ghaznavide. Invase il Gujarat negli anni ottanta del XII secolo, ma fu respinto dai Solankī che dominavano la regione. Nel 1186, s'impadronì di Lahore e mise fine al regno della dinastia dei Ghaznavidi.

Dopo una sua iniziale disfatta nel 1191 nella prima battaglia di Tarayn inflittagli da Prithivîrâja Châhumâna III - il raja Rajput che all'epoca regnava sui territori di Delhi e di Ajmer - si ritirò con il suo esercito nelle sue basi, grazie al fatto che i guerrieri del raja Rajput non avevano una cavalleria in grado d'inseguire e sterminare quanti erano stati sconfitti. Passò quindi un anno intero a prepararsi a una nuova guerra. Tornò in campo nel 1192 e lo scontro nella seconda battaglia di Tarayn, coi suoi 120.000 uomini turchi, persiani e afghani, forti di una possente cavalleria e di abili arcieri dotati di arco composito, annientò i 300.000 indiani di Prithivîr, catturando lo stesso raja, che fu giustiziato sullo stesso campo di battaglia.

Muḥammad Ghūrī divenne in tal modo il primo esponente musulmano a impadronirsi di Delhi e a insediare un potere islamico in India, senza tuttavia trasferirvisi personalmente.

Mentre egli nominava governatore di Delhi il suo generale Quṭb al-Din Aybak, futuro fondatore della locale dinastia mamelucca , l'altro suo generale Muḥammad ibn Bakhtiyār attraversava il Gange, prese Varanasi, distruggendo templi indù e sterminando la popolazione maschile, salvando le donne e i fanciulli per deportarli come schiavi, Muḥammad Ghūrī razziava il Bihār dove perpetrò il grande massacro di monaci buddisti a Nālandā, e della popolazione civile, vibrando un colpo pesante al buddhismo indiano. S'impadronì infine del Bengala ove tuttavia incontrò una resistenza non trascurabile.

Nel 1206, Muḥammad Ghūrī si recò a Lahore per piegare una rivolta, ma sulla via del ritorno a Ghazna in cui s'era stabilito, fu assassinato a Damik, forse ad opera di un Assassino ismailita nizarita, oppure da un combattente ghakkar della regione.

Muḥammad Ghūrī , trattò i suoi schiavi come figli e si pensa che egli abbia addestrato una gran quantità di schiavi d'origine turca alle arti della guerra e all'amministrazione dei suoi territori, riprendendo uno schema a suo tempo avviato dal califfo abbaside al-Muʿtaṣim e dal Sultano ayyubide al-Ṣāliḥ Ayyūb.

Uno di tali schiavi, Quṭb al-Dīn Aybak, si rese indipendente e fondò alla morte di Muḥammad di Ghūr un Sultanato, inaugurandovi la dinastia dei Mamelucchi di Delhi.

Frasi Muhammad di Ghur

„The fort of Kalinjar which was celebrated throughout the world for being as strong as the wall of Alexander was taken. 'The temples were converted into mosques and abodes of goodness and the ejaculations of the bead-counters and the voices of the summoners to prayer ascended to the highest heaven, and the very name of idolatry was annihilated.' 'Fifty thousand men came under the collar of slavery, and the plain became black as pitch with Hindus.“

—  Muhammad of Ghor
Elephants and cattle, and countless arms also, became the spoil of the victors. Kalinjar (Uttar Pradesh) . Hasan Nizami: Taju’l-Ma’sir in Elliot and Dowson, Vol. II : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. pp. 231 Also quoted in Jain, Meenakshi (2011). The India they saw: Foreign accounts.

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„Such was the man who was sent on an embassy to Ajmir, in order that the Rai (Pithaura) of that country might see the right way without the intervention of the sword, and that he might incline from the track of opposition into the path of propriety, leaving his airy follies for the institutes of the knowledge of Allah, and acknowledging the expediency of uttering the words of martyrdom and repeating the precepts of the law, and might abstain from infidelity and darkness, which entails the loss of this world and that to come, and might place in his ear the ring of slavery to the sublime Court (may Allah exalt it!) which is the centre of justice and mercy, and the pivot of the Sultans of the worldand by these means and modes might cleanse the fords of good life from the sins of impurity'…'The army of Islam was completely victorious, and 'an hundred thousand grovelling Hindus swiftly departed to the fire of hell'… After this great victory, the army of Islam marched forward to Ajmir, where it arrived at a fortunate moment and under an auspicious bird, and obtained so much booty and wealth, that you might have said that the secret depositories of the seas and hills had been revealed….'While the Sultan remained at Ajmir, he destroyed the pillars and foundations of the idol temples, and built in their stead mosques and colleges, and the precepts of Islam, and the customs of the law were divulged and established“

—  Muhammad of Ghor
About the conquest of Ajmer (Rajasthan) Hasan Nizami: Taju’l-Ma’sir, in Elliot and Dowson, Vol. II : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. pp. 213-216. Also quoted (in part) in Jain, Meenakshi (2011). The India they saw: Foreign accounts.

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„When the afiairs of this tract was settled, the royal army marched, in the year 592 h., (1196 a. d.) "towards Galewar (Gwalior), and invested that fort, which is the pearl of the necklace of the castles of Hind, the summit of which the nimble-footed wind from below cannot reach, and on the bastion of which the rapid clouds have never cast their shade, and which the swift imagination has never surmounted, and at the height of which the celestial sphere is dazzled."…In compliance with the divine injunction of holy war, they drew out the bloodthirsty sword before the faces of the enemies of religion…Solankh Pal who had raised the standard of infidelity, and perdition, and prided himself on his countless army and elephants, and who expanded the fist^ of oppression from the hiding place of deceit, and who had lighted the flame of turbulence and rebellion, and who had fixed the root of sedition and enmity firm in his heart, and in the courtyard of whose breast the shrub of tyranny and commotion had shot forth its branches, when he saw the power and majesty of the army of Islam," he became alarmed and dispirited. " Wherever he looked, he saw the road of flight blocked up."“

—  Muhammad of Ghor
He therefore " sued for pardon, and placed the ring of servitude in his ear," and agreed to pay tribute... About the capture of Gwalior. Hasan Nizami. Elliot and Dowson, Vol. II : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. pp. 227-228 Also quoted in Jain, Meenakshi (2011). The India they saw: Foreign accounts.

„The editor introduces Muhammad Ghuri in the Taj-ul-Maasir of Hasan Nizami as follows: 'After dwelling on the advantage and necessity of holy wars, without which the fold of Muhammad's flock could never be filled, he says that such a hero as these obligations of religion require has been found, 'during the reign of the lord of the world Mu'izzu-d dunya wau-d din, the Sultan of Sultans, Abu-l Muzaffar Muhammad bin Sam bin Husain' the destroyer of infidels and plural-worshippers etc.,' and that Almighty Allah had selected him from amongst the kings and emperors of the time, 'for he had employed himself in extirpating the enemies of religion and the state, and had deluged the land of Hind with the blood of their hearts, so that to the very day of resurrection travellers would have to pass over pools of gore in boats, - had taken every fort and stronghold which he attacked, and ground its foundations and pillars to powder under the feet of fierce and gigantic elephants, - had sent the whole world of idolatry to the fire of hell, by the well-watered blade of his Hindi sword, - had founded mosques and colleges in the places of images and idols'.'The narrative proceeds: 'Having equipped and set in order the army of Islam, and unfurled the standards of victory and the flags of power, trusting in the aid of the Almighty, he proceeded towards Hindustan…“

—  Muhammad of Ghor
Elliot and Dowson, Vol. II : Elliot and Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 Volumes, Allahabad Reprint, 1964. pp. 209-212. Quoted in Sita Ram Goel : The Calcutta Quran Petition, ch. 6.

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