Frasi di Paul Krugman
Data di nascita: 28. Febbraio 1953
Altri nomi:Paul Robin Krugman
Paul Robin Krugman è un economista e saggista statunitense. Attualmente professore di Economia e di Relazioni Internazionali all'Università di Princeton, ha vinto il Premio Nobel per l'economia 2008 per la sua analisi degli andamenti commerciali e del posizionamento dell'attività economica in materia di geografia economica. Autore di numerosi volumi, dal 2000 collabora con il New York Times scrivendo editoriali d'opinione bisettimanali.
Krugman è famoso nel mondo accademico per i suoi studi riguardanti la teoria del commercio, lavori nei quali espone modelli presentando i vantaggi che le economie dei paesi potrebbero derivare dall'imposizione di barriere protezionistiche, e per i suoi libri di testo sulle crisi valutarie e sull'economia internazionale, in particolare sull'analisi degli effetti reali delle fluttuazioni dei tassi di cambio. È stato critico della New Economy degli anni novanta del XX secolo, dei regimi di cambio fisso dei paesi sud-est asiatici e della Thailandia prima della crisi del 1997, delle politiche attuate dai governi per difendere i cambi fissi sui quali specularono fondi speculativi prima della crisi debitoria russa del 1998.
La filosofia economica di Krugman può essere descritta come neo-keynesiana. Proprio lui ha tentato di rendere accessibile questo filone degli studi economici in testi divulgativi come "Peddling Prosperity" , nel quale critica le politiche dei Repubblicani nei tardi anni ottanta e nella prima metà degli anni novanta.
Krugman è stato, inoltre, apertamente critico verso la politica interna ed estera dell'amministrazione di George W. Bush. È membro del Gruppo dei Trenta dal 1988, che riunisce economisti noti a livello internazionale.
Frasi Paul Krugman
„Smentiamo quest'invenzione secondo cui il fenomeno Trump rappresenta una qualche specie di imprevedibile intrusione nel normale corso della politica dei Repubblicani. Al contrario, il G. O. P. ha trascorso decenni incoraggiando e sfruttando la stessa rabbia che adesso sta portando il signor Trump alla nomination. Quella rabbia era destinata a sbandare facendo perdere il controllo all'establishment prima o poi. Donald Trump non è un incidente. Il suo partito l'ha visto arrivare.“
— Paul Krugman
The Australian Financial Review, 6 September 2010, p. 15, "Time for Obama to abandon caution". Also seen in the Sacramento Bee http://www.sacbee.com/2010/09/04/3004829/obama-should-aim-high-on-stimulus.html
„I believe in a relatively equal society, supported by institutions that limit extremes of wealth and poverty. I believe in democracy, civil liberties, and the rule of law. That makes me a liberal, and I’m proud of it.“
— Paul Krugman
Ch. 13. The Conscience of a Liberal http://books.wwnorton.com/books/detail.aspx?ID=5887. W. W. Norton & Company. 352 pages ISBN 978-0-393-06069-0, 1st edition (2007)
„The new trade theory picture of the world looks something like this: Each country has, at any given time, a set of broad resources—land, skilled labor, capital, climate, general technological competence. These resources define up to a point the industries in which the country can hope to be competitive on world markets. [... ] But a country's resources do not fully determine what it produces, because the detailed pattern of advantage reflects the self-reinforcing virtuous circles, set in motion by the vagaries of history.“
— Paul Krugman
Ch. 9 : The Economics of QWERTY
„First, most of the speculation about the superiority of the communist system - including the popular view that Western economies could painlessly accelerate their own growth by borrowing some aspects of that system - was off base. Rapid growth was based entirely on one attribute: the willingness to save, to sacrifice current consumption for the sake of future production. The communist example offered no hint of a free lunch.
Second, the economic analysis of communist countries' growth implied some future limits to their industrial expansion - in other words, implied that a naive projection of their past growth rates into the future was likely to greatly overstate their real prospects. Economic growth that is based on expansion of inputs, rather than on growth in output per unit of input, is inevitably subject to diminishing returns. It was simply not possible for the Soviet economies to sustain the rates of growth of labor force participation, average education levels, and above all the physical capital stock that had prevailed in previous years. Communist growth would predictably slow down, perhaps drastically.“
„If economists ruled the world, there would be no need for a World Trade Organization. The economist's case for free trade is essentially a unilateral case- that is, it says that a country serves its own interests by pursuing free trade regardless of what other countries may do.“
— Paul Krugman
"What should trade negotiators negotiate about?" Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Mar., 1997)
„I do not think that word “compromise” means what Mr. Ryan thinks it means. Above all, he failed to offer the one thing the White House won’t, can’t bend on: an end to extortion over the debt ceiling. Yet even this ludicrously unbalanced offer was too much for conservative activists, who lambasted Mr. Ryan for basically leaving health reform intact.Does this mean that we’re going to hit the debt ceiling? Quite possibly; nobody really knows, but careful observers are giving no better than even odds that any kind of deal will be reached before the money runs out. Beyond that, however, our current state of dysfunction looks like a chronic condition, not a one-time event. Even if the debt ceiling is raised enough to avoid immediate default, even if the government shutdown is somehow brought to an end, it will only be a temporary reprieve. Conservative activists are simply not willing to give up on the idea of ruling through extortion, and the Obama administration has decided, wisely, that it will not give in to extortion.So how does this end? How does America become governable again?“
— Paul Krugman
Regarding the ongoing 2013 U.S. government shutdown
„Economists, like everyone, have their political biases, but these are by no means as strong an influence on what they are willing to consider as you might think. For example, one might have thought that strongly liberal economists like, say, James Tobin would be at least mildly sympathetic to the views of radical economists who draw their inspiration from Marx, or of heterodox economic thinkers like Galbraith. After all, in such fields as history and sociology the Marxist or post-Marxist left has long received a respectful hearing. And yet you don't find this happening: liberal economists are almost as quick as their conservative colleagues to condemn heterodox leftist ideas as foolish it was the liberal Robert Solow, not Milton Friedman, who defended orthodoxy in the bitter "capital controversy" with British radicals.“
„When the economy is in a depression, scarcity ceases to rule. Productive resources sit idle, so that it is possible to have more of some things without having less of others; free lunches are all around. As a result, all the usual rules of economics are stood on their head; we enter a looking-glass world in which virtue is vice and prudence is folly. Thrift hurts our future prospects; sound money makes us poorer. Moreover, that's the kind of world we have been living in for the past several years, which means that it is a kind of world that students should understand. […] Depression economics is marked by paradoxes, in which seemingly virtuous actions have perverse, harmful effects. Two paradoxes in particular stand out: the paradox of thrift, in which the attempt to save more actually leads to the nation as a whole saving less, and the less-well-known paradox of flexibility, in which the willingness of workers to protect their jobs by accepting lower wages actually reduces total employment. […] In times of depression, the rules are different. Conventionally sound policy – balanced budgets, a firm commitment to price stability – helps to keep the economy depressed. Once again, this is not normal. Most of the time we are not in a depression. But sometimes we are – and 2013, when this chapter was written, was one of those times.“
— Paul Krugman
“Depressions are Different”, in Robert M. Solow, ed. Economics for the Curious: Inside the Minds of 12 Nobel Laureates. 2014.
„Whether the influence of increasing returns on trade and geography is rising or falling, one thing is clear: much was learned from the intellectual revolution that brought increasing returns into the heart of how we think about the world economy. It wasn't just that economists could make sense of previously puzzling data, we found ourselves able to see things that had previously been in an intellectual blind spot. Many people contributed to this process of enlightenment; I'm proud to have been a part of the journey.“
— Paul Krugman
"The Increasing Returns Revolution in Trade and Geography", The American Economic Review (Jun., 2009)