Frasi di Georges Ivanovič Gurdjieff

Georges Ivanovič Gurdjieff foto
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Georges Ivanovič Gurdjieff

Data di nascita: 13. Gennaio 1866
Data di morte: 29. Ottobre 1949

Pubblicità

Georges Ivanovič Gurdjieff fu un filosofo, mistico, danzatore, scrittore e maestro di danza greco-armeno.

Visse a lungo in Turchia e in Francia. Il suo insegnamento combina sufismo, scuola mistica dell'Islam , e altre tradizioni religiose , esoterismo e filosofia, ma non può considerarsi un sistema sincretico. La sua ricerca, infatti, guarda allo scopo ultimo di tutte le religioni, ma non realizzando mai una miscellanea: lo scopo ultimo è la coscienza e il "risveglio", favorendo il superamento degli automatismi psicologici ed esistenziali che condizionano l'essere umano.

L'insegnamento fondamentale di Gurdjieff è che la vita umana è ordinariamente vissuta in uno stato di veglia apparente prossimo al sogno; e per trascendere lo stato di sonno elaborò uno specifico metodo per ottenere un livello superiore di vitalità, per giungere al ricordo di sé. Le sue tecniche non sono affidate a libri e vengono ancor oggi impartite da discepoli qualificati della sua Scuola. Nei testi, infatti, emerge solamente la parte "teorica" dell'insegnamento di Gurdjieff.

Dopo aver attratto a sé un consistente numero di allievi e discepoli tra i quali vi erano persone del milieu filosofico e artistico russo, G. fondò una scuola per lo sviluppo spirituale, chiamata Istituto per lo Sviluppo Armonico dell'Uomo. Gurdjieff fu noto anche come insegnante di danze sacre, i cosiddetti Movimenti, ad uso esclusivo dei suoi allievi. La Scuola, una volta trasferitasi a Parigi, prese il nome di Institut Gurdjieff, nome che tuttora mantiene e che rappresenta il nucleo centrale della Fondazione Gurdjieff.

Negli anni, l'insegnamento di Gurdjieff ha influenzato diversi personaggi della cultura occidentale: fra questi, uno dei più importanti architetti statunitensi del XX secolo: Frank Lloyd Wright, che sposò in seconde nozze Olgivanna Hinzenberg, già allieva di Gurdjieff, la quale gli tributò un pubblico riconoscimento durante un congresso svoltosi dopo la di lui morte. Suoi allievi furono anche la scrittrice Pamela Lyndon Travers, nota per avere creato il personaggio di Mary Poppins e René Daumal, scrittore francese che entrò in contatto con le sue idee, negli ultimi anni della propria esistenza,mediante Alexandre Gustav Salzmann; inoltre la celebre poetessa e narratrice Katherine Mansfield che, affetta da tubercolosi, volle passare l'ultimo periodo della sua vita accanto al Maestro, vivendo quasi come un'eremita in una casetta che Gurdjieff le aveva offerto nella propria tenuta di Avòn, nei pressi di Fontainebleau.

L'influenza gurdjieffiana è presente anche nella pedagogia, col "Modello educativo Etievan", adattato, sulla base di iniziali indicazioni del Maestro, da Nathalie de Salzmann de Etievan e applicato in diversi collegi del Sudamerica . Dalle idee di Gurdjieff hanno tratto spunti musicisti contemporanei quali Franco Battiato e Keith Jarrett e anche vari pensatori del milieu New Age.

Frasi Georges Ivanovič Gurdjieff

„Faith cannot be given to man.Faith arises in a man and increases“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: Faith cannot be given to man. Faith arises in a man and increases in its action in him not as the result of automatic learning, that is, not from any automatic ascertainment of height, breadth, thickness, form and weight, or from the perception of anything by sight, hearing, touch, smell or taste, but from understanding. Understanding is the essence obtained from information intentionally learned and from all kinds of experiences personally experienced.

„Most prayers have nothing in common with petitions.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: When we speak of prayer or of the results of prayer we always imply only one kind of prayer — petition, or we think that petition can be united with all other kinds of prayers.… Most prayers have nothing in common with petitions. I speak of ancient prayers; many of them are much older than Christianity. These prayers are, so to speak, recapitulations; by repeating them aloud or to himself a man endeavors to experience what is in them, their whole content, with his mind and his feeling.

Pubblicità

„LIBERATION LEADS TO LIBERATION.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: LIBERATION LEADS TO LIBERATION. These are the first words of truth — not truth in quotation marks but truth in the real meaning of the word; truth which is not merely theoretical, not simply a word, but truth that can be realized in practice. The meaning behind these words may be explained as follows: By liberation is meant the liberation which is the aim of all schools, all religions, at all times. This liberation can indeed be very great. All men desire it and strive after it. But it cannot be attained without the first liberation, a lesser liberation. The great liberation is liberation from influences outside us. The lesser liberation is liberation from influences within us. At first, for beginners, this lesser liberation appears to be very great, for a beginner depends very little on external influences. Only a man who has already become free of inner influences falls under external influences. Inner influences prevent a man from falling under external influences. Maybe it is for the best. Inner influences and inner slavery come from many varied sources and many independent factors — independent in that sometimes it is one thing and sometimes another, for we have many enemies. There are so many of these enemies that life would not be long enough to struggle with each of them and free ourselves from each one separately. So we must find a method, a line of work, which will enable us simultaneously to destroy the greatest possible number of enemies within us from which these influences come. I said that we have many independent enemies, but the chief and most active are vanity and self-love. One teaching even calls them representatives and messengers of the devil himself. For some reason they are also called Mrs. Vanity and Mr. Self-Love. As I have said, there are many enemies. I have mentioned only these two as the most fundamental. At the moment it is hard to enumerate them all. It would be difficult to work on each of them directly and specifically, and it would take too much time since there are so many. So we have to deal with them indirectly in order to free ourselves from several at once. These representatives of the devil stand unceasingly at the threshold which separates us from the outside, and prevent not only good but also bad external influences from entering. Thus they have a good side as well as a bad side. For a man who wishes to discriminate among the influences he receives, it is an advantage to have these watchmen. But if a man wishes all influences to enter, no matter what they may be — for it is impossible to select only the good ones — he must liberate himself as much as possible, and finally altogether, from these watchmen, whom some considerable undesirable. For this there are many methods, and a great number of means. Personally I would advise you to try freeing yourselves and to do so without unnecessary theorizing, by simple reasoning, active reasoning, within yourselves.

„The power of changing oneself lies not in the mind, but in the body and the feelings. Unfortunately, however, our body and our feelings are so constituted that they don’t care a jot about anything so long as they are happy.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: The power of changing oneself lies not in the mind, but in the body and the feelings. Unfortunately, however, our body and our feelings are so constituted that they don’t care a jot about anything so long as they are happy. They live for the moment and their memory is short. The mind alone lives for tomorrow. Each has its own merits. The merit of the mind is that it looks ahead. But it is only the other two that can "do."

„This is exactly what people do not understand.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: The being of two people can differ from one another more than the being of a mineral and of an animal. This is exactly what people do not understand. And they do not understand that knowledge depends on being. Not only do they not understand this latter but they definitely do not wish to understand it.

„Objective knowledge, the idea of unity included, belongs to objective consciousness. The forms which express this knowledge when perceived by subjective consciousness are inevitably distorted and, instead of truth, they create more and more delusions.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: Objective knowledge, the idea of unity included, belongs to objective consciousness. The forms which express this knowledge when perceived by subjective consciousness are inevitably distorted and, instead of truth, they create more and more delusions. With objective consciousness it is possible to see and feel the unity of everything. But for subjective consciousness the world is split up into millions of separate and unconnected phenomena. Attempts to connect these phenomena into some sort of system in a scientific or philosophical way lead to nothing because man cannot reconstruct the idea of the whole starting from separate facts and they cannot divine the principles of the division of the whole without knowing the laws upon which this division is based.

„Man has no individual I. But there are, instead, hundreds and thousands of separate small "I"s, very often entirely unknown to one another, never coming into contact, or, on the contrary, hostile to each other, mutually exclusive and incompatible.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: Man has no individual I. But there are, instead, hundreds and thousands of separate small "I"s, very often entirely unknown to one another, never coming into contact, or, on the contrary, hostile to each other, mutually exclusive and incompatible. Each minute, each moment, man is saying or thinking, "I". And each time his I is different. Just now it was a thought, now it is a desire, now a sensation, now another thought, and so on, endlessly. Man is a plurality. Man's name is legion.

„Therefore if his actions are opposed to those which are demanded by a given religion he cannot assert that he belongs to that religion.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: RELIGION IS DOING; a man does not merely think his religion or feel it, he lives his religion as much as he is able, otherwise it is not religion but fantasy or philosophy. Whether he likes it or not he shows his attitude towards religion by his actions and he can show his attitude only by his actions. Therefore if his actions are opposed to those which are demanded by a given religion he cannot assert that he belongs to that religion.

Pubblicità

„Love of consciousness evokes the same in response“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: Love of consciousness evokes the same in response Love of feeling evokes the opposite Love of body depends only on type and polarity.

„One of man’s important mistakes, one which must be remembered, is his illusion in regard to his I.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: One of man’s important mistakes, one which must be remembered, is his illusion in regard to his I. Man such as we know him, the "man-machine," the man who cannot "do," and with whom and through whom everything "happens," cannot have a permanent and single I. His I changes as quickly as his thoughts, feelings and moods, and he makes a profound mistake in considering himself always one and the same person; in reality he is always a different person, not the one he was a moment ago.

„Man is a plurality. Man's name is legion.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: Man has no individual I. But there are, instead, hundreds and thousands of separate small "I"s, very often entirely unknown to one another, never coming into contact, or, on the contrary, hostile to each other, mutually exclusive and incompatible. Each minute, each moment, man is saying or thinking, "I". And each time his I is different. Just now it was a thought, now it is a desire, now a sensation, now another thought, and so on, endlessly. Man is a plurality. Man's name is legion.

„Death must come before rebirth. But what must die? False confidence in one’s own knowledge, self-love and egoism. Our egoism must be broken.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: All religions speak about death during this life on earth. Death must come before rebirth. But what must die? False confidence in one’s own knowledge, self-love and egoism. Our egoism must be broken. We must realize that we are very complicated machines, and so this process of breaking is bound to be a long and difficult task. Before real growth becomes possible, our personality must die.

Pubblicità

„By liberation is meant the liberation which is the aim of all schools, all religions, at all times.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: LIBERATION LEADS TO LIBERATION. These are the first words of truth — not truth in quotation marks but truth in the real meaning of the word; truth which is not merely theoretical, not simply a word, but truth that can be realized in practice. The meaning behind these words may be explained as follows: By liberation is meant the liberation which is the aim of all schools, all religions, at all times. This liberation can indeed be very great. All men desire it and strive after it. But it cannot be attained without the first liberation, a lesser liberation. The great liberation is liberation from influences outside us. The lesser liberation is liberation from influences within us. At first, for beginners, this lesser liberation appears to be very great, for a beginner depends very little on external influences. Only a man who has already become free of inner influences falls under external influences. Inner influences prevent a man from falling under external influences. Maybe it is for the best. Inner influences and inner slavery come from many varied sources and many independent factors — independent in that sometimes it is one thing and sometimes another, for we have many enemies. There are so many of these enemies that life would not be long enough to struggle with each of them and free ourselves from each one separately. So we must find a method, a line of work, which will enable us simultaneously to destroy the greatest possible number of enemies within us from which these influences come. I said that we have many independent enemies, but the chief and most active are vanity and self-love. One teaching even calls them representatives and messengers of the devil himself. For some reason they are also called Mrs. Vanity and Mr. Self-Love. As I have said, there are many enemies. I have mentioned only these two as the most fundamental. At the moment it is hard to enumerate them all. It would be difficult to work on each of them directly and specifically, and it would take too much time since there are so many. So we have to deal with them indirectly in order to free ourselves from several at once. These representatives of the devil stand unceasingly at the threshold which separates us from the outside, and prevent not only good but also bad external influences from entering. Thus they have a good side as well as a bad side. For a man who wishes to discriminate among the influences he receives, it is an advantage to have these watchmen. But if a man wishes all influences to enter, no matter what they may be — for it is impossible to select only the good ones — he must liberate himself as much as possible, and finally altogether, from these watchmen, whom some considerable undesirable. For this there are many methods, and a great number of means. Personally I would advise you to try freeing yourselves and to do so without unnecessary theorizing, by simple reasoning, active reasoning, within yourselves.

„Faith of consciousness is freedom“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: Faith of consciousness is freedom Faith of feeling is weakness Faith of body is stupidity.

„The evolution of man is the evolution of his consciousness.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: In speaking of evolution it is necessary to understand from the outset that no mechanical evolution is possible. The evolution of man is the evolution of his consciousness.

„Socrates’ words, “Know thyself” remain for all those who seek true knowledge and being.“

— G. I. Gurdjieff
Context: There do exist enquiring minds, which long for the truth of the heart, seek it, strive to solve the problems set by life, try to penetrate to the essence of things and phenomena and to penetrate into themselves. If a man reasons and thinks soundly, no matter which path he follows in solving these problems, he must inevitably arrive back at himself, and begin with the solution of the problem of what he is himself and what his place is in the world around him. For without this knowledge, he will have no focal point in his search. Socrates’ words, “Know thyself” remain for all those who seek true knowledge and being.

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