Frasi di James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell foto
3  0

James Clerk Maxwell

Data di nascita: 13. Giugno 1831
Data di morte: 5. Novembre 1879

Pubblicità

James Clerk Maxwell è stato un matematico e fisico scozzese.

Elaborò la prima teoria moderna dell'elettromagnetismo, raggruppando in un'unica teoria tutte le precedenti osservazioni, esperimenti ed equazioni non correlate di questa branca della fisica.

Le equazioni di Maxwell dimostrano che l'elettricità, il magnetismo e la luce sono tutte manifestazioni del medesimo fenomeno: il campo elettromagnetico. Da questo momento in poi tutte le altre leggi ed equazioni classiche di queste discipline verranno ricondotte a casi semplificati delle quattro equazioni fondamentali. Il lavoro di Maxwell è stato definito la «seconda grande unificazione della fisica», dopo quella operata da Isaac Newton.

Maxwell dimostrò che il campo elettrico e magnetico si propagano attraverso lo spazio sotto forma di onde alla velocità costante della luce. Nel 1864 scrisse "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" dove per la prima volta propose che la natura ondulatoria della luce fosse la causa dei fenomeni elettrici e magnetici. Il suo lavoro nella redazione di un modello unificato per l'elettromagnetismo è considerato uno dei più grandi risultati della fisica del XIX secolo. Tuttavia, egli rimase ancora legato alla teoria classica – ora abbandonata – della propagazione della luce attraverso l'etere luminifero, un mezzo ineffabile e sfuggente ad ogni misurazione sperimentale che avrebbe permeato lo spazio vuoto.

Le principali linee guida del pensiero di Maxwell sono identificabili in:

ricerca dell'unità ;

rifiuto di ipotesi microscopiche;

enfasi sui risultati sperimentali.

Come metodo di indagine teorica, Maxwell premia l'analogia perché, secondo lui, in grado di gettar luce sui campi della scienza meno noti, partendo dalle leggi che governano fenomeni meglio conosciuti. Ma questo metodo, sebbene efficace, dev'essere usato, per Maxwell, con consapevolezza per non vanificare gli sforzi e trasformare «utili aiuti in fuochi fatui» .

Frasi James Clerk Maxwell

Pubblicità

„Colour as perceived by us is a function of three independent variables“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: Colour as perceived by us is a function of three independent variables at least three are I think sufficient, but time will show if I thrive. Maxwell, in a letter to William Thomson, The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell: 1846-1862 (1990), p. 245.

„I hope that you will not tell me you have little fault to find with me, without finding that little and communicating it.“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: I maintain that all the evil influences that I can trace have been internal and not external, you know what I mean—that I have the capacity of being more wicked than any example that man could set me, and that if I escape, it is only by God's grace helping me to get rid of myself, partially in science, more completely in society, — but not perfectly except by committing myself to God as the instrument of His will, not doubtfully, but in the certain hope that that Will will be plain enough at the proper time. Nevertheless, you see things from the outside directly, and I only by reflexion, so I hope that you will not tell me you have little fault to find with me, without finding that little and communicating it. Letter to Rev. C. B. Tayler ( 8 July 1853) in Ch. 6 : Undergraduate Life At Cambridge October 1850 to January 1854 — ÆT. 19-22, p. 189

„But listen, what harmony holy
Is mingling its notes with our own!
The discord is vanishing slowly,
And melts in that dominant tone.
And they that have heard it can never
Return to confusion again,
Their voices are music for ever,
And join in the mystical strain.“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: But listen, what harmony holy Is mingling its notes with our own! The discord is vanishing slowly, And melts in that dominant tone. And they that have heard it can never Return to confusion again, Their voices are music for ever, And join in the mystical strain. Part III Poems, To the Air of "Lörelei." (January, 1858)

„This velocity is so nearly that of light, that it seems we have strong reason to conclude that light itself“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: The general equations are next applied to the case of a magnetic disturbance propagated through a non-conductive field, and it is shown that the only disturbances which can be so propagated are those which are transverse to the direction of propagation, and that the velocity of propagation is the velocity v, found from experiments such as those of Weber, which expresses the number of electrostatic units of electricity which are contained in one electromagnetic unit. This velocity is so nearly that of light, that it seems we have strong reason to conclude that light itself (including radiant heat, and other radiations if any) is an electromagnetic disturbance in the form of waves propagated through the electromagnetic field according to electromagnetic laws. A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1864), §20.

„I mean—that I have the capacity of being more wicked than any example that man could set me, and that if I escape, it is only by God's grace“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: I maintain that all the evil influences that I can trace have been internal and not external, you know what I mean—that I have the capacity of being more wicked than any example that man could set me, and that if I escape, it is only by God's grace helping me to get rid of myself, partially in science, more completely in society, — but not perfectly except by committing myself to God as the instrument of His will, not doubtfully, but in the certain hope that that Will will be plain enough at the proper time. Nevertheless, you see things from the outside directly, and I only by reflexion, so I hope that you will not tell me you have little fault to find with me, without finding that little and communicating it. Letter to Rev. C. B. Tayler ( 8 July 1853) in Ch. 6 : Undergraduate Life At Cambridge October 1850 to January 1854 — ÆT. 19-22, p. 189

Pubblicità

„It is of great advantage to the student of any subject to read the original memoirs on that subject, for science is always most completely assimilated when it is in the nascent state“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: It is of great advantage to the student of any subject to read the original memoirs on that subject, for science is always most completely assimilated when it is in the nascent state... A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873), Preface, p. xiii.

„Happiness and Misery must inevitably increase with increasing Power and Knowledge“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: I believe, with the Westminster Divines and their predecessors ad Infinitum that "Man's chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy him for ever." That for this end to every man has been given a progressively increasing power of communication with other creatures. That with his powers his susceptibilities increase. That happiness is indissolubly connected with the full exercise of these powers in their intended direction. That Happiness and Misery must inevitably increase with increasing Power and Knowledge. That the translation from the one course to the other is essentially miraculous, while the progress is natural. But the subject is too high. I will not, however, stop short, but proceed to Intellectual Pursuits. Letter to Lewis Campbell (9 November 1851) in Ch. 6 : Undergraduate Life At Cambridge October 1850 to January 1854 — ÆT. 19-22, p. 158

„In every branch of knowledge the progress is proportional to the amount of facts on which to build“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: In every branch of knowledge the progress is proportional to the amount of facts on which to build, and therefore to the facility of obtaining data. Letter to Lewis Campbell (9 November 1851) in Ch. 6 : Undergraduate Life At Cambridge October 1850 to January 1854 — ÆT. 19-22, p. 159

„Words from empty words they sever—
Words of Truth from words of Pride.“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: By the hollow mauntain-side Questions strange I shout for ever, While echoes far and wide Seem to mock my vain endeavour; Still I shout, for though they never Cast my borrowed voice aside, Words from empty words they sever— Words of Truth from words of Pride. Part III Poems, "Reflection from Various Surfaces" (April 18, 1853)

Pubblicità

„But we have no right to think thus of the unsearchable riches of creation, or of the untried fertility of those fresh minds into which these riches will continue to be poured.“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Context: This characteristic of modern experiments — that they consist principally of measurements — is so prominent, that the opinion seems to have got abroad, that in a few years all the great physical constants will have been approximately estimated, and that the only occupation which will then be left to men of science will be to carry on these measurements to another place of decimals. If this is really the state of things to which we are approaching, our Laboratory may perhaps become celebrated as a place of conscientious labour and consummate skill, but it will be out of place in the University, and ought rather to be classed with the other great workshops of our country, where equal ability is directed to more useful ends. But we have no right to think thus of the unsearchable riches of creation, or of the untried fertility of those fresh minds into which these riches will continue to be poured. It may possibly be true that, in some of those fields of discovery which lie open to such rough observations as can be made without artificial methods, the great explorers of former times have appropriated most of what is valuable, and that the gleanings which remain are sought after, rather for their abstruseness, than for their intrinsic worth. But the history of science shews that even during the phase of her progress in which she devotes herself to improving the accuracy of the numerical measurement of quantities with which she has long been familiar, she is preparing the materials for the subjugation of the new regions, which would have remained unknown if she had been contented with the rough methods of her early pioneers. I might bring forward instances gathered from every branch of science, shewing how the labour of careful measurement has been rewarded by the discovery of new fields of research, and by the development of new scientific ideas. But the history of the science of terrestrial magnetism affords us a sufficient example of what may be done by experiments in concert, such as we hope some day to perform in our Laboratory. Introductory Lecture on Experimental Physics held at Cambridge in October 1871, re-edited by W. D. Niven (2003) in Volume 2 of The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, Courier Dover Publications, p. 241; this has sometimes been misquoted in a way which considerably alters its intent: "in a few years, all the great physical constants will have been approximately estimated, and … the only occupation which will then be left to the men of science will be to carry these measurement to another place of decimals."

„The equations at which we arrive must be such that a person of any nation, by substituting the numerical values of the quantities as measured by his own national units, would obtain a true result.“

— James Clerk Maxwell
Encyclopedia Brittanica article, quoted by Patricia Fara in Science A Four Thousand Year History (2009) citing Simon Schaffer article in The Values of Precision (1995) ed. M. Norton Wise

„Mathematicians may flatter themselves that they possess new ideas which mere human language is yet unable to express. Let them make the effort to express these ideas in appropriate words without the aid of symbols, and if they succeed they will not only lay us laymen under a lasting obligation, but we venture to say, they will find themselves very much enlightened during the process, and will even be doubtful whether the ideas as expressed in symbols had ever quite found their way out of the equations of their minds.“

— James Clerk Maxwell
"Thomson & Tait's Natural Philosophy" in Nature, Vol. 7 (Mar. 27, 1873) A review of ' [https://archive.org/details/elementsnatural00kelvgoog] (1873) by Sir W. Thomson, P. G. Tait. See [https://archive.org/details/nature7818721873lock Nature, Vol. 7-8,] Nov. 1872-Oct. 1873, pp. 399-400, or The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, [https://books.google.com/books?id=lzlRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA328 p. 328.]<!--Commented out this source: A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Introduction.[https://books.google.com/books?id=p1pKAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=Mathematicians+may+flatter]-->

Avanti
Anniversari di oggi
Stephen Biko foto
Stephen Biko4
attivista sudafricano 1946 - 1977
Brad Pitt foto
Brad Pitt13
attore e produttore cinematografico statunitense 1963
Michel Quoist foto
Michel Quoist22
presbitero e scrittore francese 1921 - 1997
Costantino Rozzi foto
Costantino Rozzi35
dirigente sportivo e imprenditore italiano 1929 - 1994
Altri 92 anniversari oggi
Autori simili
James Jeans foto
James Jeans5
astronomo, matematico e fisico britannico
Erwin Schrödinger foto
Erwin Schrödinger11
fisico e matematico austriaco
Freeman Dyson foto
Freeman Dyson17
fisico e matematico statunitense
Henri Poincaré foto
Henri Poincaré12
matematico, fisico e filosofo francese
Jean Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert foto
Jean Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert4
enciclopedista, matematico e fisico francese
Stephen Hawking foto
Stephen Hawking36
matematico, fisico e cosmologo britannico
John Knox foto
John Knox3
teologo scozzese
Muriel Spark foto
Muriel Spark3
scrittrice scozzese
Richard Feynman foto
Richard Feynman31
fisico statunitense
Fred Hoyle foto
Fred Hoyle1
matematico, fisico e astronomo britannico