Frasi di Farid al-Din 'Attar

Farid al-Din 'Attar photo
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Farid al-Din 'Attar

Data di nascita: 1145
Data di morte: 26. Aprile 1230

Farīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, per esteso Farīd al-Dīn Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm ʿAṭṭār Nīshāpūrī , è stato un mistico e poeta persiano.

Era figlio di un ricco speziale e ricevette un'eccellente educazione. Studiò l'arabo, la medicina e le scienze religiose islamiche. Da giovane aiutò il padre in bottega e alla sua morte la ereditò. Da speziale, i clienti che si rivolgevano a lui gli confidavano tutti i loro problemi medici ed egli ne era spesso profondamente toccato. La leggenda vuole che fu proprio lì che avvenne il suo avvicinamento al sufismo, per opera di un Derviscio che lo rimproverò per l'opulenza delle merci esposte - si dice infatti che ricevesse nella sua bottega "500 clienti al giorno" - invitandolo alla vita meditativa, l'unica in grado di dargli una morte dignitosa: alla richiesta di ʿAṭṭār che gli venisse fornita prova di ciò, il derviscio si distese a terra e morì. Quest'esperienza avrebbe colpito tanto ʿAṭṭārʿ da indurlo ad abbracciare immediatamente la ricerca mistica.

Infine decise di abbandonare la sua attività e viaggiò moltissimo. Durante la sua permanenza a Kufa, a Mecca, a Damasco, in Turkestan ed in India, ebbe l'occasione di incontrare numerosi maestri sufi.

Al suo ritorno promosse il Sufismo.

Alcuni studiosi ritengono che ʿAṭṭār rimanesse ucciso durante la distruzione della città da parte degli invasori Mongoli. Sulla sua morte si narra il seguente aneddoto:

Un soldato mongolo lo catturò e, avendo scoperto chi egli fosse, lo voleva condurre dal suo ufficiale superiore quando si presentò un uomo, offrendo denaro per comprare il prigioniero. Il soldato stava per accettare ma ʿAṭṭār disse al soldato che valeva molto di più di quanto pattuito. Continuarono il tragitto e poco dopo si presentò un altro uomo che offrì una somma maggiore per comprarlo, ma egli convinse il soldato a rifiutare poiché valeva molto di più anche di quella cifra proposta. Poco dopo un vecchio si presentò offrendo, in cambio di ʿAṭṭār, un fascio di legna. Il poeta, in genuino spirito sufi, disse al soldato di accettare l'offerta poiché Non c'è nulla che valga più di questo. Il soldato s'infuriò e uccise ʿAṭṭār all'istante.

ʿAṭṭār è uno dei più famosi poeti mistici persiani. Le sue opere furono d'ispirazione per Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī e per molti altri poeti mistici. ʿAṭṭār, insieme a Sana'i di Ghazna, fu colui che influenzò maggiormente Rūmī nelle sue concezioni sul sufismo. Rūmī li cita entrambi numerose volte nelle sue opere e con la più alta stima. Rūmī lodò ʿAttār nel seguente modo:

Frasi Farid al-Din 'Attar

„Joy! Joy! No mortal thought can fathom me.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"The Triumph of the Soul" as translated by Margaret Smith in The Persian Mystics
Contesto: Joy! Joy! I triumph! Now no more I know
Myself as simply me. I burn with love
Unto myself, and bury me in love.
The centre is within me and its wonder
Lies as a circle everywhere about me.
Joy! Joy! No mortal thought can fathom me.

„What you most want,
what you travel around wishing to find,
lose yourself as lovers lose themselves,
and you'll be that.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"Looking For Your Own Face" as translated by Coleman Barks in The Hand of Poetry: Five Mystic Poets of Persia
Contesto: Don't be dead or asleep or awake.
Don't be anything.
What you most want,
what you travel around wishing to find,
lose yourself as lovers lose themselves,
and you'll be that.

„Come you lost Atoms to your Centre draw,
And be the Eternal Mirror that you saw“

—  Attar of Nishapur, libro The Conference of the Birds

The Conference of the Birds (1177)
Contesto: Come you lost Atoms to your Centre draw,
And be the Eternal Mirror that you saw:
Rays that have wander'd into Darkness wide
Return and back into your Sun subside.

„Know then, that both this visible world and that
Which unseen is, alike are God Himself,
Naught is, save God: and all that is, is God.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"All Pervading Consciousness"
Contesto: Yet what are seas and what is air? For all
Is God, and but a talisman are heaven and earth
To veil Divinity. For heaven and earth,
Did He not permeate them, were but names;
Know then, that both this visible world and that
Which unseen is, alike are God Himself,
Naught is, save God: and all that is, is God.

„Thou all Creation art, all we behold, but Thou“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"All Pervading Consciousness"
Contesto: Thou all Creation art, all we behold, but Thou,
The soul within the body lies concealed,
And Thou dost hide Thyself within the soul,
O soul in soul! Myst'ry in myst'ry hid!
Before all wert Thou, and are more than all!

„Yet what are seas and what is air? For all
Is God, and but a talisman are heaven and earth
To veil Divinity.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"All Pervading Consciousness"
Contesto: Yet what are seas and what is air? For all
Is God, and but a talisman are heaven and earth
To veil Divinity. For heaven and earth,
Did He not permeate them, were but names;
Know then, that both this visible world and that
Which unseen is, alike are God Himself,
Naught is, save God: and all that is, is God.

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„From each a mystic silence Love demands.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"Intoxicated by the Wine of Love" as translated by Margaret Smith from "The Jawhar Al-Dhat"
Variant translation:
From each, Love demands a mystic silence.
As translated in Essential Sufism, by James Fadiman and Robert Frager
Contesto: From each a mystic silence Love demands.
What do all seek so earnestly? 'Tis Love.
What do they whisper to each other? Love.
Love is the subject of their inmost thoughts.
In Love no longer "thou" and "I" exist,
For Self has passed away in the Beloved.

„Joy! Joy! I triumph! Now no more I know
Myself as simply me.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"The Triumph of the Soul" as translated by Margaret Smith in The Persian Mystics
Contesto: Joy! Joy! I triumph! Now no more I know
Myself as simply me. I burn with love
Unto myself, and bury me in love.
The centre is within me and its wonder
Lies as a circle everywhere about me.
Joy! Joy! No mortal thought can fathom me.

„I shall grasp the soul's skirt with my hand
and stamp on the world's head with my foot.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

As quoted in Music of a Distant Drum: Classical Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hebrew Poems (2001) by Bernard Lewis, p. 119
Contesto: I shall grasp the soul's skirt with my hand
and stamp on the world's head with my foot.
I shall trample Matter and Space with my horse,
beyond all Being I shall utter a great shout,
and in that moment when I shall be alone with Him,
I shall whisper secrets to all mankind.
Since I have neither sign nor name
I shall speak only of things unnamed and without sign.

„Since I have neither sign nor name
I shall speak only of things unnamed and without sign.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

As quoted in Music of a Distant Drum: Classical Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hebrew Poems (2001) by Bernard Lewis, p. 119
Contesto: I shall grasp the soul's skirt with my hand
and stamp on the world's head with my foot.
I shall trample Matter and Space with my horse,
beyond all Being I shall utter a great shout,
and in that moment when I shall be alone with Him,
I shall whisper secrets to all mankind.
Since I have neither sign nor name
I shall speak only of things unnamed and without sign.

„In Love no longer "thou" and "I" exist,
For Self has passed away in the Beloved.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"Intoxicated by the Wine of Love" as translated by Margaret Smith from "The Jawhar Al-Dhat"
Variant translation:
From each, Love demands a mystic silence.
As translated in Essential Sufism, by James Fadiman and Robert Frager
Contesto: From each a mystic silence Love demands.
What do all seek so earnestly? 'Tis Love.
What do they whisper to each other? Love.
Love is the subject of their inmost thoughts.
In Love no longer "thou" and "I" exist,
For Self has passed away in the Beloved.

„He who would know the secret of both worlds,
Will find the secret of them both, is Love.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

"Intoxicated by the Wine of Love" as translated by Margaret Smith from "The Jawhar Al-Dhat"

„The Sea
Will be the Sea
Whatever the drop's philosophy.“

—  Attar of Nishapur

As quoted in The Sun at Midnight : The Revealed Mysteries of the Ahlul Bayt Sufis (2003) by Laurence Galian

„All things are but masks at God's beck and call,
They are symbols that instruct us that God is all.“

—  Attar of Nishapur, libro The Conference of the Birds

As translated by Raficq Abdulla
The Conference of the Birds (1177)

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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