Frasi di Leszek Kołakowski

Leszek Kołakowski photo
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Leszek Kołakowski

Data di nascita: 23. Ottobre 1927
Data di morte: 17. Luglio 2009

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Leszek Kołakowski è stato un filosofo, storico, saggista e storico delle idee polacco naturalizzato britannico, noto soprattutto per la sua analisi critica del marxismo proposta nel saggio in tre volumi Nascita, sviluppo, dissoluzione del marxismo .

Per la sua erudizione e prolificità ha ottenuto diversi riconoscimenti durante la propria carriera, tra cui il Premio Erasmo nel 1983, lo Jerusalem Prize nel 2007 e la fellowship dell'All Souls College di Oxford e della British Academy.

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Frasi Leszek Kołakowski

„Fascist was, by definition, a person who happened to have been in jail in a communist country.“

—  Leszek Kolakowski
Context: When I collect my experiences, I notice that fascist is a person who holds one of the following beliefs (by way of example): 1) That people should wash themselves, rather than go dirty; 2) that freedom of the press in America is preferable to the ownership of the whole press by one ruling party; 3) that people should not be jailed for their opinions. both communist and anti-communist - 4), that racial criteria, in favour of either whites or blacks, are inadvisable in admission to Universities; 5 ) that torture is condemnable, no matter who applies it. (Roughly speaking "fascist" was the same as "liberal".) Fascist was, by definition, a person who happened to have been in jail in a communist country. The refugees from Czechoslovakia in 1968 were sometimes met in Germany by very progressive and absolutely revolutionary leftists with placards saying "fascism will not pass". "My Correct Views on Everything" (1974)

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„Marxism has been the greatest fantasy of our century.“

—  Leszek Kolakowski
Context: Marxism has been the greatest fantasy of our century. It was a dream offering the prospect of a society of perfect unity, in which all human aspirations would be fulfilled and all values reconciled. Epilogue, p. 1206

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„The proletariat thus shared its dictatorship with nobody. As to the question of the “ majority”, this never troubled Lenin much. In an article “ Constitutional Illusions” (Aug. 1917; Works, vol. 25, p. 201) he wrote: “ in time of revolution it is not enough to ascertain the ‘ will of the majority’ – you must prove to be stronger at the decisive moment and at the decisive place; you must win … We have seen innumerable examples of the better organized, more politically conscious and better armed minority forcing its will upon the majority and defeating it.” (pg. 503) Trotsky, however, answers questions [in The Defence of Terrorism] that Lenin evaded or ignored. “ Where is your guarantee, certain wise men ask us, that it is just your party that expresses the interests of historical development? Destroying or driving underground the other parties, you have thereby prevented their political competition with you, and consequently you have deprived yourselves of the possibility of testing your line of action.” Trotsky replies: “ This idea is dictated by a purely liberal conception of the course of the revolution. In a period in which all antagonisms assume an open character; and the political struggle swiftly passes into a civil war, the ruling party has sufficient material standard by which to test its line of action, without the possible circulation of Menshevik papers. Noske crushes the Communists, but they grow. We have suppressed the Mensheviks and the S. R. s [Socialist Republics] … and they have disappeared. This criterion is sufficient for us” (p. 101). This is one of the most enlightening theoretical formulations of Bolshevism, from which it appears that the “ rightness” of a historical movement or a state is to be judged by whether its use of violence is successful. Noske did not succeed in crushing the German Communists, but Hitler did; it would thus follow from Trotsky’ s rule that Hitler “ expressed the interests of historical development”. Stalin liquidated the Trotskyists in Russia, and they disappeared – so evidently Stalin, and not Trotsky, stood for historical progress. (pg. 510)“

—  Leszek Kolakowski

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