Frasi di Eulero

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Eulero

Data di nascita: 15. Aprile 1707
Data di morte: 18. Settembre 1783

Pubblicità

Leonhard Euler, noto in Italia come Eulero , è stato un matematico e fisico svizzero.

È considerato il più importante matematico dell'Illuminismo. È noto per essere tra i più prolifici di tutti i tempi e ha fornito contributi storicamente cruciali in svariate aree: analisi infinitesimale, funzioni speciali, meccanica razionale, meccanica celeste, teoria dei numeri, teoria dei grafi. Sembra che Pierre Simon Laplace abbia affermato "Leggete Eulero; egli è il maestro di tutti noi".

Eulero è stato senz'altro il più grande fornitore di "denominazioni matematiche", offrendo il suo nome a una quantità impressionante di formule, teoremi, metodi, criteri, relazioni, equazioni. In geometria: il cerchio, la retta e i punti di Eulero relativi ai triangoli, più la relazione di Eulero, che riguardava il cerchio circoscritto a un triangolo; nella teoria dei numeri: il criterio di Eulero ed il Teorema di Fermat-Eulero, l'indicatore di Eulero, l'identità di Eulero, la congettura di Eulero; nella meccanica: gli angoli di Eulero, il carico critico di Eulero ; nell'analisi: la costante di Eulero-Mascheroni, la funzione gamma di Eulero; in logica: il diagramma di Eulero-Venn; nella teoria dei grafi: la relazione di Eulero; nell'algebra: il metodo di Eulero , il Teorema di Eulero; nel calcolo differenziale: il metodo di Eulero .

Sempre a Eulero si legano altri oggetti matematici, attraverso l'aggettivo "euleriano", quali: il ciclo euleriano, il grafo euleriano, la funzione euleriana di prima specie o funzione beta, e quella di seconda specie o funzione gamma, la catena euleriana di un grafo senza anse, i numeri euleriani .

Anche se fu prevalentemente un matematico diede importanti contributi alla fisica e in particolare alla meccanica classica e celeste. Per esempio sviluppò l'equazione delle travi di Eulero-Bernoulli e le equazioni di Eulero-Lagrange. Inoltre determinò le orbite di molte comete.

Eulero tenne contatti con numerosi matematici del suo tempo; in particolare tenne una lunga corrispondenza con Christian Goldbach confrontando con lui alcuni dei propri risultati. Egli inoltre seppe coordinare il lavoro di altri matematici che gli furono vicini: i figli Johann Albrecht Euler e Christoph Euler, i membri dell'Accademia di San Pietroburgo W. L. Krafft e Anders Johan Lexell e il suo segretario Nicolaus Fuss ; a tutti i collaboratori riconobbe i meriti.

Complessivamente esistono 886 pubblicazioni di Eulero. Buona parte della simbologia matematica tuttora in uso venne introdotta da Eulero, per esempio i per i numeri immaginari, Σ come simbolo per la sommatoria, f per indicare una funzione e la lettera π per indicare pi greco.

Frasi Eulero

„Of course, when the effective causes are too obscure, but the final causes are more readily ascertained, the problem is commonly solved by the indirect method“

— Leonhard Euler
Context: All the greatest mathematicians have long since recognized that the method presented in this book is not only extremely useful in analysis, but that it also contributes greatly to the solution of physical problems. For since the fabric of the universe is most perfect, and is the work of a most wise Creator, nothing whatsoever takes place in the universe in which some relation of maximum and minimum does not appear. Wherefore there is absolutely no doubt that every effect in the universe can be explained as satisfactorily from final causes, by the aid of the method of maxima and minima, as it can from the effective causes themselves. Now there exist on every hand such notable instances of this fact, that, in order to prove its truth, we have no need at all of a number of examples; nay rather one's task should be this, namely, in any field of Natural Science whatsoever to study that quantity which takes on a maximum or a minimum value, an occupation that seems to belong to philosophy rather than to mathematics. Since, therefore, two methods of studying effects in Nature lie open to us, one by means of effective causes, which is commonly called the direct method, the other by means of final causes, the mathematician uses each with equal success. Of course, when the effective causes are too obscure, but the final causes are more readily ascertained, the problem is commonly solved by the indirect method; on the contrary, however, the direct method is employed whenever it is possible to determine the effect from the effective causes. But one ought to make a special effort to see that both ways of approach to the solution of the problem be laid open; for thus not only is one solution greatly strengthened by the other, but, more than that, from the agreement between the two solutions we secure the very highest satisfaction. introduction to De Curvis Elasticis, Additamentum I to his Methodus Inveniendi Lineas Curvas Maximi Minimive Proprietate Gaudentes 1744; translated on pg10-11, [https://www.dropbox.com/s/o09w82abgtftpfr/1933-oldfather.pdf "Leonhard Euler's Elastic Curves"], Oldfather et al 1933

Pubblicità

„The kind of knowledge which is supported only by observations and is not yet proved must be carefully distinguished from the truth; it is gained by induction, as we usually say. Yet we have seen cases in which mere induction led to error.“

— Leonhard Euler
Context: It will seem a little paradoxical to ascribe a great importance to observations even in that part of the mathematical sciences which is usually called Pure Mathematics, since the current opinion is that observations are restricted to physical objects that make impression on the senses. As we must refer the numbers to the pure intellect alone, we can hardly understand how observations and quasi-experiments can be of use in investigating the nature of numbers. Yet, in fact, as I shall show here with very good reasons, the properties of the numbers known today have been mostly discovered by observation, and discovered long before their truth has been confirmed by rigid demonstrations. There are many properties of the numbers with which we are well acquainted, but which we are not yet able to prove; only observations have led us to their knowledge. Hence we see that in the theory of numbers, which is still very imperfect, we can place our highest hopes in observations; they will lead us continually to new properties which we shall endeavor to prove afterwards. The kind of knowledge which is supported only by observations and is not yet proved must be carefully distinguished from the truth; it is gained by induction, as we usually say. Yet we have seen cases in which mere induction led to error. Therefore, we should take great care not to accept as true such properties of the numbers which we have discovered by observation and which are supported by induction alone. Indeed, we should use such discovery as an opportunity to investigate more exactly the properties discovered and to prove or disprove them; in both cases we may learn something useful. Opera Omnia, ser. 1, vol. 2, p. 459 Spcimen de usu observationum in mathesi pura, as quoted by George Pólya, Induction and Analogy in Mathematics Vol. 1, Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning (1954)

„For since the fabric of the universe is most perfect, and is the work of a most wise Creator, nothing whatsoever takes place in the universe in which some relation of maximum and minimum does not appear.“

— Leonhard Euler
Context: All the greatest mathematicians have long since recognized that the method presented in this book is not only extremely useful in analysis, but that it also contributes greatly to the solution of physical problems. For since the fabric of the universe is most perfect, and is the work of a most wise Creator, nothing whatsoever takes place in the universe in which some relation of maximum and minimum does not appear. Wherefore there is absolutely no doubt that every effect in the universe can be explained as satisfactorily from final causes, by the aid of the method of maxima and minima, as it can from the effective causes themselves. Now there exist on every hand such notable instances of this fact, that, in order to prove its truth, we have no need at all of a number of examples; nay rather one's task should be this, namely, in any field of Natural Science whatsoever to study that quantity which takes on a maximum or a minimum value, an occupation that seems to belong to philosophy rather than to mathematics. Since, therefore, two methods of studying effects in Nature lie open to us, one by means of effective causes, which is commonly called the direct method, the other by means of final causes, the mathematician uses each with equal success. Of course, when the effective causes are too obscure, but the final causes are more readily ascertained, the problem is commonly solved by the indirect method; on the contrary, however, the direct method is employed whenever it is possible to determine the effect from the effective causes. But one ought to make a special effort to see that both ways of approach to the solution of the problem be laid open; for thus not only is one solution greatly strengthened by the other, but, more than that, from the agreement between the two solutions we secure the very highest satisfaction. introduction to De Curvis Elasticis, Additamentum I to his Methodus Inveniendi Lineas Curvas Maximi Minimive Proprietate Gaudentes 1744; translated on pg10-11, [https://www.dropbox.com/s/o09w82abgtftpfr/1933-oldfather.pdf "Leonhard Euler's Elastic Curves"], Oldfather et al 1933

„Madam, I have come from a country where people are hanged if they talk.“

— Leonhard Euler
In Berlin, to the Queen Mother of Prussia, on his lack of conversation in his meeting with her, on his return from Russia; as quoted in Science in Russian Culture : A History to 1860 (1963) Alexander Vucinich Variant: Madame... I have come from a country where one can be hanged for what one says.

Pubblicità

„It would be a considerable invention indeed, that of a machine able to mimic speech, with its sounds and articulations. … I think it is not impossible.“

— Leonhard Euler
Letter to Friederike Charlotte of Brandenburg-Schwedt (16 June 1761) Lettres à une Princesse d'Allemagne sur différentes questions de physique et de philosophie, Royer, 1788, p. 265 As quoted in An Introduction to Text-to-Speech Synthesis (2001) by Thierry Dutoit, p. 27; also<!--slightly misquoted--> in Fabian Brackhane and Jürgen Trouvain "Zur heutigen Bedeutung der Sprechmaschine Wolfgang von Kempelens" (in: Bernd J. Kröger (ed.): Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung 2009, Band 2 der Tagungsbände der 20.<!--20th--> Konferenz "Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung" (ESSV), Dresden: TUDpress, 2009, pp. 97–107)

„Now I will have less distraction.“

— Leonhard Euler
Upon losing the use of his right eye; as quoted in In Mathematical Circles (1969) by H. Eves

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