Frasi di Mosè Maimonide

Mosè Maimonide photo
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Mosè Maimonide

Data di nascita: 30. Marzo 1138
Data di morte: 13. Dicembre 1204

Moshe ben Maimon, più noto nell'Europa medievale col nome di Mosè Maimònide , è stato un filosofo, rabbino, medico, talmudista, giurista spagnolo, una delle personalità di spicco dell'Andalusia sotto il dominio arabo, tra i più importanti pensatori nella storia dell'ebraismo.

Conosciuto anche con l'acronimo di Rambam , Mosè Maimonide divenne, grazie al suo enorme lavoro di analisi del Talmud e sistematizzazione dell'Halakhah, il rabbino e filosofo ebreo di maggior prestigio ed influenza del Medioevo; le sue opere di diritto ebraico vengono ancora oggi ritenute le migliori nell'ortodossia, e sono, insieme al commentario di Rashi, un caposaldo indispensabile della letteratura rabbinica. Wikipedia

Foto: Blaisio Ugolino, Rambam Institute / Public domain

Frasi Mosè Maimonide

„Know that this Universe, in its entirety, is nothing else but one individual being“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part I
Contesto: Know that this Universe, in its entirety, is nothing else but one individual being; that is to say, the outermost heavenly sphere, together with all included therein, is as regards individuality beyond all question a single being like Said and Omar. The variety of its substances—I mean the substances of that sphere and all its component parts—is like the variety of the substances of a human being: just as, e. g., Said is one individual, consisting of various solid substances, such as flesh, bones, sinews of various humours, and of various spiritual elements; in like manner this sphere in its totality is composed of the celestial orbs, the four elements and their combinations; there is no vacuum whatever therein, but the whole space is filled up with matter. Its centre is occupied by the earth, earth is surrounded by water, air encompasses the water, fire envelopes the air, and this again is enveloped by the fifth substance (quintessence). These substances form numerous spheres, one being enclosed within another so that no intermediate empty space, no vacuum, is left. One sphere surrounds and closely joins the other. All the spheres revolve with constant uniformity, without acceleration or retardation; that is to say, each sphere retains its individual nature as regards its velocity and the peculiarity of its motion; it does not move at one time quicker, at another slower. Compared with each other, however, some of the spheres move with less, others with greater velocity. The outermost, all-encompassing sphere, revolves with the greatest speed; it completes its revolution in one day, and causes every thing to participate in its motion, just as every particle of a thing moves when the entire body is in motion; for all existing beings stand in the same relation to that sphere as a part of a thing stands to the whole. These spheres have not a common centre; the centres of some of them are identical with the centre of the Universe, while those of the rest are different from it. Some of the spheres have a motion independent of that of the whole Universe, constantly revolving from East to West, while other spheres move from West to East. The stars contained in those spheres are part of their respective orbits; they are fixed in them, and have no motion of their own, but participating in the motion of the sphere of which they are a part, they themselves appear to move. The entire substance of this revolving fifth element is unlike the substance of those bodies which consist of the other four elements, and are enclosed by the fifth element.<!--pp.288-292 (1881) Tr. Friedlander

„…one should accept the truth from whatever source it proceeds.“

—  Maimónides

Foreword to The Eight Chapters Of Maimonides On Ethics, translated by Joseph I. Gorfinkle, Ph.D. Columbia University Press, New York (1912). Page 35-36. https://archive.org/details/eightchaptersofm00maim
Variante: "Accept the truth from whatever source it comes." Introduction to the Shemonah Peraqim, as quoted in Truth and Compassion: Essays on Judaism and Religion in Memory of Rabbi Dr. Solomon Frank (1983) Edited by Howard Joseph, Jack Nathan Lightstone, and Michael D. Oppenheim, p. 168
Variante: You must accept the truth from whatever source it comes.

„The second class of evils comprises such evils as people cause to each other, when, e.g., some of them use their strength against others.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.12
Contesto: The second class of evils comprises such evils as people cause to each other, when, e. g., some of them use their strength against others. These evils are more numerous than those of the first kind... they likewise originate in ourselves, though the sufferer himself cannot avert them.

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„For this reason, great theological scholars gave instruction in all such matters only by means of metaphors and allegories.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Introduction
Contesto: You must know that if a person, who has attained a certain degree of perfection, wishes to impart to others, either orally or in writing, any portion of the knowledge which he has acquired of these subjects, he is utterly unable to be as systematic and explicit as he could be in a science of which the method is well known. The same difficulties which he encountered when investigating the subject for himself will attend him when endeavouring to instruct others: viz., at one time the explanation will appear lucid, at another time, obscure: this property of the subject appears to remain the same both to the advanced scholar and to the beginner. For this reason, great theological scholars gave instruction in all such matters only by means of metaphors and allegories.

„The theory of man's perfectly free will is one of the fundamental principles of the Law of our teacher Moses“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.17
Contesto: Fifth Theory.—This is our theory, or that of our Law.... The theory of man's perfectly free will is one of the fundamental principles of the Law of our teacher Moses, and of those who follow the Law. According to this principle man does what is in his power to do, by his nature, his choice, and his will; and his action is not due to any faculty created for the purpose. All species of irrational animals likewise move by their own free will. This is the Will of God; that is to say, it is due to the eternal divine will that all living beings should move freely, and that man should have the power to act according to his will or choice within the limits of his capacity.

„Do not imagine that these most difficult problems can be thoroughly understood by any one of us. This is not the case.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Introduction
Contesto: Do not imagine that these most difficult problems can be thoroughly understood by any one of us. This is not the case. At times the truth shines so brilliantly that we perceive it as clear as day. Our nature and habit then draw a veil over our perception, and we return to a darkness almost as dense as before. We are like those who, though beholding frequent flashes of lightning, still find themselves in the thickest darkness of the night. On some the lightning flashes in rapid succession, and they seem to be in continuous light, and their night is as clear as the day. This was the degree of prophetic excellence attained by (Moses) the greatest of prophets, to whom God said," But as for thee, stand thou here by Me" (Deut. v. 31), and of whom it is written" the skin of his face shone," etc. (Exod. xxxiv. 29). [Some perceive the prophetic flash at long intervals; this is the degree of most prophets. ] By others only once during the whole night is a flash of lightning perceived. This is the case with those of whom we are informed," They prophesied, and did not prophesy again" (Num. xi. 25). There are some to whom the flashes of lightning appear with varying intervals; others are in the condition of men, whose darkness is illumined not by lightning, but by some kind of crystal or similar stone, or other substances that possess the property of shining during the night; and to them even this small amount of light is not continuous, but now it shines and now it vanishes, as if it were" the flame of the rotating sword."

„He gave us existence; and the creation of the controlling faculty in animals is a proof of His mercy towards them“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.12
Contesto: You will see the mercy of God toward His creatures, how He has provided that which is required, in proper proportions, and treated all individual beings of the same species with perfect equality.... for it is an act of great and perfect goodness that He gave us existence; and the creation of the controlling faculty in animals is a proof of His mercy towards them, as has been shown by us.

„In accordance with the Sabean theories“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.29
Contesto: In accordance with the Sabean theories images were erected to the stars, golden images to the sun, images of silver to the moon, and they attributed the metals and the climates to the influence of the planets, saying that a certain planet is the god of a certain zone. They built temples, placed in them images, and assumed that the stars sent forth their influence upon these images, which are thereby enabled (to speak) to understand, to comprehend, to inspire human beings, and to tell them what is useful to them. They apply the same to trees which fall to the lot of these stars.

„These sublime and profound themes admit of no proof whatever… In all questions that cannot be demonstrated, we must adopt the method which we have adopted in this question about God's Omniscience. Note it.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.21
Contesto: He fully knows His unchangeable essence, and has thus a knowledge of all that results from any of His acts. If we were to try to understand in what manner this is done, it would be the same as if we tried to be the same as God, and to make our knowledge identical with His knowledge. Those who seek the truth, and admit what is true, must believe that nothing is hidden from God; that everything is revealed to His knowledge, which is identical with His essence; that this kind of knowledge cannot be comprehended by us; for if we knew its method, we would possess that intellect by which such knowledge could be acquired.... Note this well, for I think that this is an excellent idea, and leads to correct views; no error will be found in it; no dialectical argument; it does not lead to any absurd conclusion, nor to ascribing any defect to God. These sublime and profound themes admit of no proof whatever... In all questions that cannot be demonstrated, we must adopt the method which we have adopted in this question about God's Omniscience. Note it.

„Those who seek the truth, and admit what is true, must believe that nothing is hidden from God; that everything is revealed to His knowledge, which is identical with His essence; that this kind of knowledge cannot be comprehended by us“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.21
Contesto: He fully knows His unchangeable essence, and has thus a knowledge of all that results from any of His acts. If we were to try to understand in what manner this is done, it would be the same as if we tried to be the same as God, and to make our knowledge identical with His knowledge. Those who seek the truth, and admit what is true, must believe that nothing is hidden from God; that everything is revealed to His knowledge, which is identical with His essence; that this kind of knowledge cannot be comprehended by us; for if we knew its method, we would possess that intellect by which such knowledge could be acquired.... Note this well, for I think that this is an excellent idea, and leads to correct views; no error will be found in it; no dialectical argument; it does not lead to any absurd conclusion, nor to ascribing any defect to God. These sublime and profound themes admit of no proof whatever... In all questions that cannot be demonstrated, we must adopt the method which we have adopted in this question about God's Omniscience. Note it.

„Consider in how many ways His knowledge is distinguished from ours according to all the teaching of every revealed religion.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.20
Contesto: Consider in how many ways His knowledge is distinguished from ours according to all the teaching of every revealed religion. First, His knowledge is one, and yet embraces many different kinds of objects. Secondly, it is applied to things not in existence. Thirdly, it comprehends the infinite. Fourthly, it remains unchanged, though it comprises the knowledge of changeable things; whilst it seems that the knowledge of a thing that is to come into existence is different from the knowledge of the thing when it has come into existence; because there is the additional knowledge of its transition from a state of potentiality into that of reality. Fifthly, according to the teaching of our Law, God's knowledge of one of two eventualities does not determine it, however certain that knowledge may be concerning the future occurrence of the one eventuality.

„In addition to the teaching of truths the Law aims at the removal of injustice from mankind.“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.32
Contesto: The chief object of the Law, as has been shown by us, is the teaching of truths; to which the truth of the creatio ex nihilo belongs. It is known that the object of the law of Sabbath is to confirm and to establish this principle, as we have shown in this treatise (Part II. chap. xxxi.) In addition to the teaching of truths the Law aims at the removal of injustice from mankind. We have thus proved that the first laws do not refer to burnt-offering and sacrifice, which are of secondary importance.

„You know from the repeated declarations in the Law that the principal purpose of the whole Law was the removal and utter destruction of idolatry“

—  Maimónides, libro The Guide for the Perplexed

Origine: Guide for the Perplexed (c. 1190), Part III, Ch.29
Contesto: You know from the repeated declarations in the Law that the principal purpose of the whole Law was the removal and utter destruction of idolatry, and all that is connected therewith, even its name, and everything that might lead to any such practices, e. g., acting as a consulter with familiar spirits, or as a wizard, passing children through the fire, divining, observing the clouds, enchanting, charming, or inquiring of the dead. The law prohibits us to imitate the heathen in any of these deeds, and a fortiori to adopt them entirely. It is distinctly said in the Law that everything which idolaters consider as service to their gods, and a means of approaching them, is rejected and despised by God... Thus all precepts cautioning against idolatry, or against that which is connected therewith, leads to it, or is related to it, are evidently useful.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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