Frasi di Ulysses Simpson Grant

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Ulysses Simpson Grant

Data di nascita: 27. Aprile 1822
Data di morte: 23. Luglio 1885

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Ulysses Simpson Grant, all'anagrafe Hiram Ulysses Grant , è stato un generale e politico statunitense.

Fu generale unionista nella Guerra di secessione americana e 18º Presidente degli Stati Uniti d'America . Fu un generale di successo, eroe e tra i principali artefici della vittoria nordista nella guerra di secessione, mentre è considerato da molti storici come uno dei peggiori presidenti statunitensi, a capo di un'amministrazione afflitta da gravi scandali e corruzione. Gli storici concordano che Grant non fu corrotto, ma lo furono i suoi subordinati nelle posizioni esecutive. Grant è in genere criticato per non aver preso una posizione decisa contro la corruzione e non aver agito per fermarla. La sua presidenza risentì, inoltre, della grave depressione economica del 1873, che proseguì anche durante il suo secondo mandato. Al termine della sua Presidenza, i conservatori sudisti ripresero il controllo di tutti gli stati del Sud e ciò causò il totale fallimento delle politiche per i diritti civili dei neri.

Militare di carriera, diplomatosi nella celebre Accademia Militare degli Stati Uniti di West Point, si distinse nella Guerra messicana. Durante la guerra civile americana guidò le truppe federali in una fondamentale serie di successi lungo il Teatro Occidentale, culminati con la presa di Vicksburg che concludeva vittoriosamente l'omonima campagna. Assicurato all'Unione il pieno controllo del Mississippi e tagliata in due la Confederazione, Grant si sposto sul Teatro Orientale e, alla fine del 1863, il Presidente Abraham Lincoln lo nominò luogotenente generale e comandante di tutti gli eserciti dell'Unione. Come comandante generale dell'esercito, Grant fronteggiò e sconfisse il temuto Generale Lee dopo una serie di sanguinose battaglie concluse con l'Assedio di Petersburg. Nell'aprile 1865 Lee si arrese a Grant ad Appomattox ponendo de facto fine alla guerra di secessione. La maggior parte degli storici è concorde nel riconoscere la grandezza del genio militare di Grant, sebbene le forze confederate lo denunciassero come un macellaio senza scrupoli.

Come presidente, promosse la ricostruzione del paese, facendo rispettare le leggi sui diritti civili e lottando contro la violenza del Ku Klux Klan da lui sciolto nel 1871. Nel 1870 fece ratificare il XV emendamento, concedendo la protezione costituzionale per il diritto di voto degli afro-americani. Impiegò l'esercito per costruire il Partito Repubblicano nel Sud, sulla base di elettori neri, di immigrati del Nord e simpatizzanti bianchi del sud . Negli 8 anni di presidenza Grant, 14 deputati e 2 senatori entrarono a far parte del Congresso degli Stati Uniti.

In politica estera di Grant si distinse per il successo nell'arbitrato internazionale relativo alle Rivendicazioni dell'Alabama con le quali gli Stati Uniti riuscirono ad ottenere dalla Gran Bretagna un risarcimento per gli aiuti forniti alla Confederazione durante la guerra civile. Riuscì ad evitare la guerra con la Spagna dopo l'Affare Virginius, un contenzioso internazionale in cui gli Stati Uniti vennero accusati di favoreggiamento nel tentativo indipendentista cubano durante la Guerra dei dieci anni. Fallì invece il tentativo di Grant di annessione della Repubblica Dominicana.

Sul piano economico Grant fu totalmente incapace nel dare una risposta al Panico del 1873 e la grave depressione che ne seguì fu devastante per il paese. Dilagò la corruzione su larga scala nel settore pubblico. Nel 1875 scoppiò lo scandalo del Whiskey Ring, nel quale oltre 3 milioni di dollari di tasse furono sottratti al governo federale, il che danneggiò ulteriormente la sua reputazione. Nel 1880 tentò, senza successo, la corsa per un terzo mandato presidenziale.

Frasi Ulysses Simpson Grant

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„I do not pretend to sustain the order.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I do not pretend to sustain the order. At the time of its publication I was insensed by a reprimand recieved from Washington for permitting acts which the Jews, within my lines, were engaged in.

„That is, by arming the negro we have added a powerful ally. They will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weaken him in the same proportion they strengthen us.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: That is, by arming the negro we have added a powerful ally. They will make good soldiers and taking them from the enemy weaken him in the same proportion they strengthen us. I am therefore most decidedly in favor of pushing this policy to the enlistment of a force sufficient to hold all the South falling into our hands and to aid in capturing more.

„I suggest for your earnest consideration, and most earnestly recommend it, that a constitutional amendment be submitted to the legislatures of the several States for ratification, making it the duty of each of the several States to establish and forever maintain free public schools adequate to the education of all the children in the rudimentary branches within their respective limits, irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: As the primary step, therefore, to our advancement in all that has marked our progress in the past century, I suggest for your earnest consideration, and most earnestly recommend it, that a constitutional amendment be submitted to the legislatures of the several States for ratification, making it the duty of each of the several States to establish and forever maintain free public schools adequate to the education of all the children in the rudimentary branches within their respective limits, irrespective of sex, color, birthplace, or religions; forbidding the teaching in said schools of religious, atheistic, or pagan tenets; and prohibiting the granting of any school funds or school taxes, or any part thereof, either by legislative, municipal, or other authority, for the benefit or in aid, directly or indirectly, of any religious sect or denomination, or in aid or for the benefit of any other object of any nature or kind whatever.

„The war has made us a nation of great power and intelligence.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: The war has made us a nation of great power and intelligence. We have but little to do to preserve peace, happiness and prosperity at home, and the respect of other nations. Our experience ought to teach us the necessity of the first; our power secures the latter.

„There had to be an end of slavery.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: There had to be an end of slavery. Then we were fighting an enemy with whom we could not make a peace. We had to destroy him. No convention, no treaty was possible. Only destruction. To Otto von Bismarck in June 1878, as quoted in [http://www.granthomepage.com/grantslavery.htm Around the World with General Grant] (1879), by John Russell Young, The American News Company, New York, vol. 7, p. 416.

„I repeat that the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution completes the greatest civil change and constitutes the most important event that has occurred since the nation came into life. The change will be beneficial in proportion to the heed that is given to the urgent recommendations of Washington.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: In his first annual message to Congress the same views are forcibly presented, and are again urged in his eighth message. I repeat that the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution completes the greatest civil change and constitutes the most important event that has occurred since the nation came into life. The change will be beneficial in proportion to the heed that is given to the urgent recommendations of Washington. If these recommendations were important then, with a population of but a few millions, how much more important now, with a population of 40,000,000, and increasing in a rapid ratio.

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„I took no part myself in any such view of the case at the time, but since the war is over, reviewing the whole question, I have come to the conclusion that the saying is quite true.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: The cause of the great War of the Rebellion against the United States will have to be attributed to slavery. For some years before the war began it was a trite saying among some politicians that 'A state half slave and half free cannot exist.' All must become slave or all free, or the state will go down. I took no part myself in any such view of the case at the time, but since the war is over, reviewing the whole question, I have come to the conclusion that the saying is quite true. Conclusion

„I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of N. Va. on the following terms“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of N. Va. on the following terms, to wit: Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate. One copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands. The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned over to the officer appointed by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside. Terms of surrender, given to General Robert E. Lee after the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (9 April 1865).

„Keep the church and the state forever separate.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: Encourage free schools, and resolve that not one dollar of money shall be appropriated to the support of any sectarian school. Resolve that neither the state nor nation, or both combined, shall support institutions of learning other than those sufficient to afford every child growing up in the land the opportunity of a good common school education, unmixed with sectarian, Pagan, or Atheistical tenets. Leave the matter of religion to the family altar, the church, and the private school, supported entirely by private contributions. Keep the church and the state forever separate. With these safeguards, I believe the battles which created the Army of the Tennessee will not have been fought in vain.

„I can assure you that these colored troops are regularly mustered into the service of the United States“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I feel no inclination to retaliate for the offences of irresponsible persons; but if it is the policy of any General intrusted with the command of troops to show no quarter, or to punish with death prisoners taken in battle, I will accept the issue. It may be you propose a different line of policy towards black troops, and officers commanding them, to that practiced towards white troops. So, I can assure you that these colored troops are regularly mustered into the service of the United States. The Government, and all officers under the Government, are bound to give the same protection to these troops that they do to any other troops. Regarding Confederate executions of captured Union prisoners of war at Milliken's Bend by hanging [https://archive.org/stream/wordsofourheroul00gran/wordsofourheroul00gran_djvu.txt Letter to Richard Taylor at Vicksburg (1863)]

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„There was no time during the rebellion when I did not think, and often say, that the South was more to be benefited by its defeat than the North. The latter had the people, the institutions, and the territory to make a great and prosperous nation. The former was burdened with an institution abhorrent to all civilized people not brought up under it, and one which degraded labor, kept it in ignorance, and enervated the governing class.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: There was no time during the rebellion when I did not think, and often say, that the South was more to be benefited by its defeat than the North. The latter had the people, the institutions, and the territory to make a great and prosperous nation. The former was burdened with an institution abhorrent to all civilized people not brought up under it, and one which degraded labor, kept it in ignorance, and enervated the governing class. With the outside world at war with this institution, they could not have extended their territory. The labor of the country was not skilled, nor allowed to become so. The whites could not toil without becoming degraded, and those who did were denominated 'poor white trash.' The system of labor would have soon exhausted the soil and left the people poor. The non-slaveholders would have left the country, and the small slaveholder must have sold out to his more fortunate neighbor. Soon the slaves would have outnumbered the masters, and, not being in sympathy with them, would have risen in their might and exterminated them. The war was expensive to the South as well as to the North, both in blood and treasure, but it was worth all it cost. Ch. 41.

„Our conversation grew so pleasant that I almost forgot the object of our meeting.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: Our conversation grew so pleasant that I almost forgot the object of our meeting. After the conversation had run on in this style for some time, General Lee called my attention to the object of our meeting, and said that he had asked for this interview for the purpose of getting from me the terms I proposed to give his army. I said that I meant merely that his army should lay down their arms, not to take them up again during the continuance of the war unless duly and properly exchanged. He said that he had so understood my letter. Ch. 67.

„I have given the subject of arming the negro my hearty support. This, with the emancipation of the negro, is the heavyest blow yet given the Confederacy. The South rave a greatdeel about it and profess to be very angry.“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I have given the subject of arming the negro my hearty support. This, with the emancipation of the negro, is the heavyest blow yet given the Confederacy. The South rave a greatdeel about it and profess to be very angry. But they were united in their action before and with the negro under subjec­tion could spare their entire white population for the field. Now they complain that nothing can be got out of their negroes.

„I feel that we are on the eve of a new era, when there is to be great harmony“

— Ulysses S. Grant
Context: I feel that we are on the eve of a new era, when there is to be great harmony between the Federal and Confederate. I cannot stay to be a living witness to the correctness of this prophecy; but I feel it within me that it is to be so. The universally kind feeling expressed for me at a time when it was supposed that each day would prove my last, seemed to me the beginning of the answer to "Let us have peace." The expression of these kindly feelings were not restricted to a section of the country, nor to a division of the people. They came from individual citizens of all nationalities; from all denominations — the Protestant, the Catholic, and the Jew; and from the various societies of the land — scientific, educational, religious or otherwise. Politics did not enter into the matter at all. I am not egotist enough to suppose all this significance should be given because I was the object of it. But the war between the States was a very bloody and a very costly war. One side or the other had to yield principles they deemed dearer than life before it could be brought to an end. I commanded the whole of the mighty host engaged on the victorious side. I was, no matter whether deservedly so or not, a representative of that side of the controversy. It is a significant and gratifying fact that Confederates should have joined heartily in this spontaneous move. I hope the good feeling inaugurated may continue to the end. Conclusion

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