Frasi di Errico Malatesta

Errico Malatesta photo
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Errico Malatesta

Data di nascita: 4. Dicembre 1853
Data di morte: 22. Luglio 1932

Errico Gaetano Maria Pasquale Malatesta è stato un anarchico e scrittore italiano, tra i principali teorici del movimento anarchico.

Passò più di dieci anni della sua vita in carcere e buona parte in esilio all'estero. Collaborò ad un gran numero di testate rivoluzionarie ed è nota la sua amicizia con Michail Bakunin. Assieme a quest'ultimo e a Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, rappresenta uno dei pensatori più importanti della corrente libertaria, da alcuni ritenuto il più importante teorizzatore e rivoluzionario dell'anarchia.Fu fermamente convinto, così come l'amico Pëtr Kropotkin, dell'imminente avvento di una rivoluzione anarchica . Pochi mesi dopo iniziò infatti la Rivoluzione russa, che ebbe il supporto anche degli anarchici, ma terminò con la presa di potere da parte dei bolscevichi. Solamente dopo 19 anni arrivò una vera rivoluzione anarchica, la fallita Rivoluzione spagnola. Malatesta è riconosciuto come il massimo esponente del movimento libertario italiano e del libero pensiero.

Frasi Errico Malatesta

„La libertà che vogliamo noi non è il diritto astratto di fare il proprio volere, ma il potere di farlo.“

—  Errico Malatesta

da Individuo, società, anarchia: la scelta del volontarismo etico, a cura di Nico Berti, e/o, 1998

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„1. Abolizione della proprietà privata della terra, delle materie prime e degli strumenti di lavoro, perché nessuno abbia il mezzo di vivere sfruttando il lavoro altrui, e tutti, avendo garantiti i mezzi per produrre e vivere, siano veramente indipendenti e possano associarsi agli altri liberamente; per l'interesse comune e conformemente alle proprie simpatie.
2. Abolizione dei Governo e di ogni potere che faccia la legge e la imponga agli altri: quindi abolizione di monarchie, repubbliche, parlamenti, eserciti, polizie, magistratura, ed ogni qualsiasi istituzione dotata di mezzi coercitivi.
3. Organizzazione della vita sociale per opera di libere associazioni e federazioni di produttori e consumatori, fatte e modificate secondo la volontà dei componenti, guidati dalla scienza e dall'esperienza e liberi da ogni imposizione che non derivi dalle necessità naturali, a cui ognuno, vinto dal sentimento stesso della necessità ineluttabile, volontariamente si sottomette.
4. Garantiti i mezzi di vita, di sviluppo, di benessere ai fanciulli ed a tutti coloro che sono impotenti a provvedere a loro stessi.
5. Guerra alle religioni ed a tutte le menzogne, anche se si nascondono sotto il manto della scienza. Istruzione scientifica per tutti e fino ai suoi gradi più elevati.
6. Guerra alle rivalità ed ai pregiudizi patriottici. Abolizione delle frontiere: fratellanza fra tutti i popoli.
7. Ricostruzione della famiglia in quel modo che risulterà dalla pratica dell'amore, libero da ogni vincolo legale, da ogni oppressione economica o fisica, da ogni pregiudizio religioso.“

—  Errico Malatesta

L'Anarchia

„If it is unjust and harmful for a majority to oppress minorities and obstruct progress, it is even more unjust and harmful for a minority to oppress the whole population or impose its own ideas by force which even if they are good ones would excite repugnance and opposition because of the very fact of being imposed.“

—  Errico Malatesta

Neither Democrats, Nor Dictators: Anarchists (1926)
Contesto: !-- The majority is, by definition, backward, conservative, enemy of the new, sluggish in thought and deed and at the same time impulsive, immoderate, suggestible, facile in its enthusiasms and irrational fears. --> Every new idea stems from one or a few individuals, is accepted, if viable, by a more or less sizeable minority and wins over the majority, if ever, only after it has been superseded by new ideas and new needs and has already become outdated and rather an obstacle, rather than a spur to progress.
But do we, then, want a minority government?
Certainly not. If it is unjust and harmful for a majority to oppress minorities and obstruct progress, it is even more unjust and harmful for a minority to oppress the whole population or impose its own ideas by force which even if they are good ones would excite repugnance and opposition because of the very fact of being imposed.
And then, one must not forget that there are all kinds of different minorities. There are minorities of egoists and villains as there are of fanatics who believe themselves to be possessed of absolute truth and, in perfectly good faith, seek to impose on others what they hold to be the only way to salvation, even if it is simple silliness. There are minorities of reactionaries who seek to turn back the clock and are divided as to the paths and limits of reaction. And there are revolutionary minorities, also divided on the means and ends of revolution and on the direction that social progress should take.
Which minority should take over?
This is a matter of brute force and capacity for intrigue, and the odds that success would fall to the most sincere and most devoted to the general good are not favourable. To conquer power one needs qualities that are not exactly those that are needed to ensure that justice and well-being will triumph in the world.

„I claimed that "individualist anarchism and communist anarchism are the same, or nearly so, in terms of moral motivations and ultimate goals".“

—  Errico Malatesta

Note to the article 'Individualism and Anarchism' by Adams (1924)
Contesto: I claimed that "individualist anarchism and communist anarchism are the same, or nearly so, in terms of moral motivations and ultimate goals".
I know that one could counter my claim with hundreds of texts and plenty of deeds of self-proclaimed individualist anarchists, which would demonstrate that individualist anarchist and communist anarchist are separated by something of a moral abyss.
However, I deny that that kind of individualists can be included among anarchists, despite their liking for calling themselves so.
If anarchy means non-government, non-domination, non-oppression by man over man, how can one call himself anarchist without lying to himself and the others, when he frankly claims that he would oppress the others for the satisfaction of his Ego, without any scruple or limit, other than that drawn by his own strength? He can be a rebel, because he is being oppressed and he fights to become an oppressor, as other nobler rebels fight to destroy any kind of oppression; but he sure cannot be anarchist. He is a would-be bourgeois, a would-be tyrant, who is unable to accomplish his dreams of dominion and wealth by his own strength and by legal means, and therefore he approaches anarchists to exploit their moral and material solidarity.
Therefore, I think the question is not about "communists" and "individualists", but rather about anarchists and non-anarchists. And we, or at least many of us, were quite wrong in discussing a certain kind of alleged "anarchist individualism" as if it really was one of the various tendencies of anarchism, instead of fighting it as one of the many disguises of authoritarianism.

„In the anarchist milieu, communism, individualism, collectivism, mutualism and all the intermediate and eclectic programmes are simply the ways considered best for achieving freedom and solidarity in economic life; the ways believed to correspond more closely with justice and freedom for the distribution of the means of production and the products of labour among men.“

—  Errico Malatesta

Note to the article 'Individualism and Anarchism' by Adams (1924)
Contesto: In the anarchist milieu, communism, individualism, collectivism, mutualism and all the intermediate and eclectic programmes are simply the ways considered best for achieving freedom and solidarity in economic life; the ways believed to correspond more closely with justice and freedom for the distribution of the means of production and the products of labour among men.
Bakunin was an anarchist, and he was a collectivist, an outspoken enemy of communism because he saw in it the negation of freedom and, therefore, of human dignity. And with Bakunin, and for a long time after him, almost all the Spanish anarchists were collectivists (collective property of soil, raw materials and means of production, and assignment of the entire product of labour to the producer, after deducting the necessary contribution to social charges), and yet they were among the most conscious and consistent anarchists.
Others for the same reason of defence and guarantee of liberty declare themselves to be individualists and they want each person, to have as individual property the part that is due to him of the means of production and therefore the free disposal of the products of his labour.
Others invent more or less complicated system of mutuality. But in the long run it is always the searching for a more secure guarantee of freedom which is the common factor among anarchists, and which divides them into different schools.

„The "government of all the people", if we have to have government, can at best be only the government of the majority.“

—  Errico Malatesta

Neither Democrats, Nor Dictators: Anarchists (1926)
Contesto: The "government of all the people", if we have to have government, can at best be only the government of the majority. And the democrats, whether socialists or not, are willing to agree. They add, it is true, that one must respect minority rights; but since it is the majority that decides what these rights are, as a result minorities only have the right to do what the majority wants and allows. The only limit to the will of the majority would be the resistance which the minorities know and can put up. This means that there would always be a social struggle, in which a part of the members, albeit the majority, has the right to impose its own will on the others, yoking the efforts of all to their own ends.
And here I would make an aside to show how, based on reasoning backed by the evidence of past and present events, it is not even true that where there is government, namely authority, that authority resides in the majority and how in reality every "democracy" has been, is and must be nothing short of an "oligarchy" – a government of the few, a dictatorship. But, for the purposes of this article, I prefer to err on the side of the democrats and assume that there can really be a true and sincere majority government.
Government means the right to make the law and to impose it on everyone by force: without a police force there is no government.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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