Frasi di Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Flavio Claudio Giuliano foto
9  0

Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Data di nascita: 6. Novembre 331
Data di morte: 26. Giugno 363

Pubblicità

Flavio Claudio Giuliano è stato un imperatore e filosofo romano, l'ultimo sovrano dichiaratamente pagano, che tentò, senza successo, di restaurare la religione romana dopo che essa era stata abbandonata a favore del cristianesimo da suo zio Costantino I e dal figlio Costanzo II.

Membro della dinastia costantiniana , fu Cesare in Gallia dal 355; un pronunciamento militare nel 361 e la contemporanea morte del cugino Costanzo II lo resero imperatore fino alla morte, avvenuta nel 363 durante la campagna militare in Persia.

Per distinguerlo da Didio Giuliano o da Giuliano di Pannonia, usurpatore dell'epoca di Carino, fu chiamato anche Giuliano II, Giuliano Augusto, Giuliano il Filosofo o Giuliano l'Apostata dai cristiani, che lo presentarono come un persecutore ma, per quanto personalmente avverso al cristianesimo, nel suo regno vi fu un'iniziale tolleranza; non ci furono comunque mai persecuzioni anticristiane e venne praticata la tolleranza nei confronti di tutte le religioni, comprese le diverse dottrine cristiane e verso l'ebraismo, al punto di ordinare la ricostruzione del tempio ebraico di Gerusalemme secondo un programma di ripristino e rafforzamento dei culti religiosi locali; il tentativo di ricostruzione però venne abbandonato.

Giuliano scrisse numerose opere di carattere filosofico, religioso, polemico e celebrativo, in molte delle quali criticò il cristianesimo. La sua ispirazione filosofica fu in gran parte neoplatonica.

Autori simili

Lucio Elio Cesare foto
Lucio Elio Cesare1
politico romano
Publio Cornelio Tacito foto
Publio Cornelio Tacito46
storico, oratore e senatore romano
 Nerone foto
Nerone2
imperatore romano
Tito Flavio Vespasiano foto
Tito Flavio Vespasiano2
imperatore romano
Marco Aurelio foto
Marco Aurelio64
imperatore romano
 Augusto foto
Augusto9
primo imperatore romano antico
Lucio Anneo Seneca foto
Lucio Anneo Seneca158
filosofo, poeta, politico e drammaturgo romano
Carlo Magno foto
Carlo Magno1
re dei Franchi e dei Longobardi e imperatore del Sacro R...
Eneo Domizio Ulpiano foto
Eneo Domizio Ulpiano11
politico e giurista romano
Appio Claudio Cieco foto
Appio Claudio Cieco3
politico e letterato romano

Frasi Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Pubblicità

„Mosè ha dato della differenza delle lingue una ragione superlativamente favolosa. Dice che i figli degli uomini, riunitisi, volevano fabbricare una città e, in essa, una gran torre; ma Dio dichiarò: qui bisogna scendere e confondere le loro lingue. - E, perché nessuno creda che io voglia darla ad intendere, leggiamo nel testo stesso di Mosè, quel che segue: «E dissero: "Orsù; fabbrichiamoci una città ed una torre, la cui cupola giunga fino al cielo; e facciamoci un nome prima di essere dispersi su tutta la faccia della terra". E scese il Signore a vedere la città e la torre, che i figli degli uomini edificavano. E disse il Signore: "Ecco, essi sono un medesimo popolo, e una medesima lingua hanno tutti; e questo cominciarono a fare; ed ora non resteranno dal compiere tutto ciò che hanno cominciato. Dunque: discendiamo là, e confondiamo la loro lingua, affinché non capisca l'uno la parola dell'altro". E li disperseil Signore Iddio su tutta la faccia della terra, ed essi cessarono di fabbricare la città e la torre».Poi volete che a questo crediamo; ma voi non credete a ciò che dice Omero degli Aloadi, che tre montagne meditavano di porre l'una sull'altra, «onde fosse ascendibile il cielo». Per me io dico che questo racconto è ugualmente favoloso che quello. Ma voi, che il primo accogliete, per qual ragione, in nome di Dio, respingete la favola di Omero? Poiché questo - credo - uomini ignoranti non lo capiscono: che, se anche tutte le genti che popolano la terra avessero la medesima voce e la medesima lingua, fabbricare una torre che arrivi fino al cielo non potrebbero affatto, quand'anche facessero mattoni di tutta quanta la terra. Mattoni ce ne vorrebbero infiniti di grandezza pari a tutta intera la terra per arrivare al solo cerchio della luna. Ammettiamo pure che tutte le genti si siano riunite parlando una stessa lingua ed abbiano ridotto in mattoni e cavato le pietre di tutta la terra; come potranno arrivare fino al cielo, se anche la loro opera dovesse stendersi più sottile di un filo allungato? In conclusione: voi che stimate vera una favola così evidentemente falsa, e pretendete che Dio abbia avuto paura della unità di voce degli uomini e per questo sia disceso a confonderne le lingue, oserete ancora menare vanto della vostra conoscenza di Dio?“

— Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Pubblicità

„I had imagined that the prelates of the Galilaeans were under greater obligations to me than to my predecessor. For in his reign many of them were banished, persecuted, and imprisoned, and many of the so-called heretics were executed … all of this has been reversed in my reign; the banished are allowed to return, and confiscated goods have been returned to the owners.“

— Julian (emperor)
Context: I had imagined that the prelates of the Galilaeans were under greater obligations to me than to my predecessor. For in his reign many of them were banished, persecuted, and imprisoned, and many of the so-called heretics were executed … all of this has been reversed in my reign; the banished are allowed to return, and confiscated goods have been returned to the owners. But such is their folly and madness that, just because they can no longer be despots, … or carry out their designs first against their brethren, and then against us, the worshippers of the gods, they are inflamed with fury and stop at nothing in their unprincipled attempts to alarm and enrage the people. Edict to the people of Bostra, as quoted in Documents of the Christian Church (1957) by Henry Bettenson <!-- Oxford University Press -->

„The rite, therefore, enjoins upon us who are celestial by our nature, but who have been carried down to earth, to reap virtue joined with piety from our conduct upon earth, and to aspire upwards unto the deity, the primal source of being and the fount of life.“

— Julian (emperor)
Context: When the Sun touches the equinoctial circle, where that which is most definite is placed (for equality is definite, but inequality indefinite and inexplicable); at that very moment (according to the report), the Sacred Tree is cut down; then come the other rites in their order; whereof some are done in compliance with rules that be holy and not to be divulged; others for reasons allowable to be discussed. The "Cutting of the Tree;" this part refers to the legend about the Gallos, and has nothing to do with the rites which it accompanies; for the gods have thereby, I fancy, taught us symbolically that we ought to pluck what is most beautiful on earth, namely virtue joined with piety, and offer the same unto the goddess, for a token of good government here below. For the Tree springs up out of the earth and aspires upwards into the air; it is likewise beautiful to see and be seen, and to afford us shade in hot weather; and furthermore to produce, and regale us with its fruit; thus a large share of a generous nature resides in it. The rite, therefore, enjoins upon us who are celestial by our nature, but who have been carried down to earth, to reap virtue joined with piety from our conduct upon earth, and to aspire upwards unto the deity, the primal source of being and the fount of life.

„I order that one-fifth of this be used for the poor who serve the priests, and the remainder be distributed by us to strangers and beggars. For it is disgraceful that, when no Jew ever has to beg, and the impious Galilaeans support not only their own poor but ours as well, all men see that our people lack aid from us.“

— Julian (emperor)
Context: The Hellenic religion does not yet prosper as I desire, and it is the fault of those who profess it; for the worship of the gods is on a splendid and magnificent scale, surpassing every prayer and every hope. May Adrasteia pardon my words, for indeed no one, a little while ago, would have ventured even to pray for a change of such a sort or so complete within so short a time. Why, then, do we think that this is enough, why do we not observe that it is their benevolence to strangers, their care for the graves of the dead and the pretended holiness of their lives that have done most to increase atheism? I believe that we ought really and truly to practise every one of these virtues. And it is not enough for you alone to practise them, but so must all the priests in Galatia, without exception. … In every city establish frequent hostels in order that strangers may profit by our benevolence; I do not mean for our own people only, but for others also who are in need of money. I have but now made a plan by which you may be well provided for this; for I have given directions that 30,000 modii of corn shall be assigned every year for the whole of Galatia, and 60,000 pints of wine. I order that one-fifth of this be used for the poor who serve the priests, and the remainder be distributed by us to strangers and beggars. For it is disgraceful that, when no Jew ever has to beg, and the impious Galilaeans support not only their own poor but ours as well, all men see that our people lack aid from us. Teach those of the Hellenic faith to contribute to public service of this sort, and the Hellenic villages to offer their first fruits to the gods; and accustom those who love the Hellenic religion to these good works by teaching them that this was our practice of old. Letter to Arsacius, High-priest of Galatia (June? 362), as translated by Emily Wilmer Cave Wright, in The Works of the Emperor Julian, Volume III (1913)

Pubblicità

„The visible world has, as I have said, subsisted around him from all eternity: and the Light also which surrounds the world has also its place from all eternity, not intermittently, nor in different degrees at different times, but constantly and in an equable manner.“

— Julian (emperor)
Context: The visible world has, as I have said, subsisted around him from all eternity: and the Light also which surrounds the world has also its place from all eternity, not intermittently, nor in different degrees at different times, but constantly and in an equable manner. But whosoever will attempt to estimate, as far as thought goes, this external Nature, by the measure of Time, he will very easily discover respecting the Sun, Sovereign of all things, of how many blessings he is, from all eternity, the author to the world.

„If the immediate creator of the universe be he who is proclaimed by Moses, then we hold nobler beliefs concerning him, inasmuch as we consider him to be the master of all things in general“

— Julian (emperor)
Context: If the immediate creator of the universe be he who is proclaimed by Moses, then we hold nobler beliefs concerning him, inasmuch as we consider him to be the master of all things in general, but that there are besides national gods who are subordinate to him and are like viceroys of a king, each administering separately his own province; and, moreover, we do not make him the sectional rival of the gods whose station is subordinate to his. But if Moses first pays honour to a sectional god, and then makes the lordship of the whole universe contrast with his power, then it is better to believe as we do, and to recognise the God of the All, though not without apprehending also the God of Moses; this is better, I say, than to honour one who has been assigned the lordship over a very small portion, instead of the creator of all things.

„It must therefore be laid down that the sovereign Sun proceeded from the One God, — One out of the one Intelligible world“

— Julian (emperor)
Context: To explain, however, everything relating to the nature of this deity, is beyond the power of man, even though the god himself should grant him the ability to understand it: in a case where it seems, to me at least, impossible even mentally to conceive all its extent. And now that we have discussed so much, we must put as it were a seal upon this subject; and to stay a while and pass on to other points no less requiring examination. What then is this seal; and what comprises everything, as it were in a summary of the conception concerning the nature of the god? May He Himself inspire our understanding when we attempt briefly to explain the source out of which he proceeded; and what he is himself; and with what effects he fills the visible world. It must therefore be laid down that the sovereign Sun proceeded from the One God, — One out of the one Intelligible world; he is stationed in the middle of the Intelligible Powers, according to the strictest sense of "middle position;" bringing the last with the first into a union both harmonious and loving, and which fastens together the things that were divided: containing within himself the means of perfecting, of cementing together, of generative life, and of the uniform existence, and to the world of Sense, the author of all kinds of good; not merely adorning and cheering it with the radiance wherewith he himself illumines the same, but also by making subordinate to himself the existence of the Solar Angels; and containing within himself the unbegotten Cause of things begotten; and moreover, prior to this, the unfading, unchanging source of things eternal. All, therefore, that was fitting to be said touching the nature of this deity (although very much has been passed over in silence) has now been stated at some length.

„Most mighty Helios, and thee Athene, and Zeus himself, I do adjure, do with me what ye will.“

— Julian (emperor)
Context: "Suppose that I and Athene, at the behest of Zeus", said Helios, "were to make you steward of all these in the room of him that hath the inheritance." Then the young man clung to him once more, and besought him greatly that he might remain there. But he said, "Be not very rebellious, lest the excess of my love be turned to the fierceness of hatred." So the young man answered, "Most mighty Helios, and thee Athene, and Zeus himself, I do adjure, do with me what ye will." After this Hermes, suddenly reappearing, filled him with new courage, for now he thought he had found a guide for his return journey, and his sojourn on earth. And Athene said, "Listen, most goodly child of mine and of this good sire divine! This heir, you see, finds no pleasure in the best of his shepherds, while the flatterers and rogues have made him their subject and slave. Consequently the good love him not, while his supposed friends wrong and injure him most fatally. Take heed therefore when you return, not to put the flatterer before the friend. Give ear, my son, to yet a second admonition. Yon sleeper is habitually deceived; do you therefore be sober and watch, that the flatterer may never deceive and cheat you by a show of friendly candor, just as some sooty and grimy smith by dressing in white and plastering his cheeks with enamel might finally induce you to give him one of your daughters to wife. List now to a third admonition. Set a strong watch upon yourself: reverence us and us alone, and of men him that is like us and none other. You see what tricks self-consciousness and dumb-foundering faint-heartedness have played with yonder idiot." Great Helios here took up the discourse and said, "Choose your friends, then treat them as friends; do not regard them like slaves or servants, but associate with them frankly and simply and generously; not saying one thing of them and thinking something else. See how distrust towards friends has damaged yonder heritor. Love your subjects as we love you. Let respect toward us take precedence of all goods: for we are your benefactors and friends and saviours." At these words the young man's heart was full, and he made ready there and then to obey the Gods implicitly always. "Away, then", said Helios, "and good hope go with you. For we shall be with you everywhere, I and Athene and Hermes here, and with us all the Gods that are in Olympus, and Gods of the air and of the earth, and all manner of deities everywhere, so long as you are holy toward us, loyal to your friends, kindly to your subjects, ruling and guiding them for their good. Never yield yourself a slave to your own desires or theirs. …" Myth at the end of Julian's oration to the cynic Heracleios, as translated in The Emperor Julian : Paganism and Christianity (1879) http://www.third-millennium-library.com/MedievalHistory/Julian_the_Emperor/CHAPTER_VI.html by Gerald Henry Rendall, Ch. VI : Julian's Personal Religion, p. 138

Avanti
Anniversari di oggi
Michael Jordan foto
Michael Jordan30
cestista statunitense 1963
Alejandro Jodorowsky foto
Alejandro Jodorowsky32
scrittore, drammaturgo e poeta cileno 1929
Ernst Jünger foto
Ernst Jünger268
filosofo e scrittore tedesco 1895 - 1998
Giordano Bruno foto
Giordano Bruno248
filosofo e scrittore italiano 1548 - 1600
Altri 102 anniversari oggi
Autori simili
Lucio Elio Cesare foto
Lucio Elio Cesare1
politico romano
Publio Cornelio Tacito foto
Publio Cornelio Tacito46
storico, oratore e senatore romano
 Nerone foto
Nerone2
imperatore romano
Tito Flavio Vespasiano foto
Tito Flavio Vespasiano2
imperatore romano
Marco Aurelio foto
Marco Aurelio64
imperatore romano