Frasi di Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Flavio Claudio Giuliano photo
10   8

Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Data di nascita: 331
Data di morte: 26. Giugno 363

Flavio Claudio Giuliano è stato un imperatore e filosofo romano, l'ultimo sovrano dichiaratamente pagano, che tentò, senza successo, di restaurare la religione romana dopo che essa era stata abbandonata a favore del cristianesimo da suo zio Costantino I e dal figlio Costanzo II.

Membro della dinastia costantiniana , fu Cesare in Gallia dal 355; un pronunciamento militare nel 361 e la contemporanea morte del cugino Costanzo II lo resero imperatore fino alla morte, avvenuta nel 363 durante la campagna militare in Persia.

Per distinguerlo da Didio Giuliano o da Giuliano di Pannonia, usurpatore dell'epoca di Carino, fu chiamato anche Giuliano II, Giuliano Augusto, Giuliano il Filosofo o Giuliano l'Apostata dai cristiani, che lo presentarono come un persecutore ma, per quanto personalmente avverso al cristianesimo, nel suo regno vi fu un'iniziale tolleranza; non ci furono comunque mai persecuzioni anticristiane e venne praticata la tolleranza nei confronti di tutte le religioni, comprese le diverse dottrine cristiane e verso l'ebraismo, al punto di ordinare la ricostruzione del tempio ebraico di Gerusalemme secondo un programma di ripristino e rafforzamento dei culti religiosi locali; il tentativo di ricostruzione però venne abbandonato.

Giuliano scrisse numerose opere di carattere filosofico, religioso, polemico e celebrativo, in molte delle quali criticò il cristianesimo. La sua ispirazione filosofica fu in gran parte neoplatonica.

„Mosè ha dato della differenza delle lingue una ragione superlativamente favolosa. Dice che i figli degli uomini, riunitisi, volevano fabbricare una città e, in essa, una gran torre; ma Dio dichiarò: qui bisogna scendere e confondere le loro lingue.“

—  Flavio Claudio Giuliano

E, perché nessuno creda che io voglia darla ad intendere, leggiamo nel testo stesso di Mosè, quel che segue: «E dissero: "Orsù; fabbrichiamoci una città ed una torre, la cui cupola giunga fino al cielo; e facciamoci un nome prima di essere dispersi su tutta la faccia della terra". E scese il Signore a vedere la città e la torre, che i figli degli uomini edificavano. E disse il Signore: "Ecco, essi sono un medesimo popolo, e una medesima lingua hanno tutti; e questo cominciarono a fare; ed ora non resteranno dal compiere tutto ciò che hanno cominciato. Dunque: discendiamo là, e confondiamo la loro lingua, affinché non capisca l'uno la parola dell'altro". E li disperseil Signore Iddio su tutta la faccia della terra, ed essi cessarono di fabbricare la città e la torre».
Poi volete che a questo crediamo; ma voi non credete a ciò che dice Omero degli Aloadi, che tre montagne meditavano di porre l'una sull'altra, «onde fosse ascendibile il cielo». Per me io dico che questo racconto è ugualmente favoloso che quello. Ma voi, che il primo accogliete, per qual ragione, in nome di Dio, respingete la favola di Omero? Poiché questo - credo - uomini ignoranti non lo capiscono: che, se anche tutte le genti che popolano la terra avessero la medesima voce e la medesima lingua, fabbricare una torre che arrivi fino al cielo non potrebbero affatto, quand'anche facessero mattoni di tutta quanta la terra. Mattoni ce ne vorrebbero infiniti di grandezza pari a tutta intera la terra per arrivare al solo cerchio della luna. Ammettiamo pure che tutte le genti si siano riunite parlando una stessa lingua ed abbiano ridotto in mattoni e cavato le pietre di tutta la terra; come potranno arrivare fino al cielo, se anche la loro opera dovesse stendersi più sottile di un filo allungato? In conclusione: voi che stimate vera una favola così evidentemente falsa, e pretendete che Dio abbia avuto paura della unità di voce degli uomini e per questo sia disceso a confonderne le lingue, oserete ancora menare vanto della vostra conoscenza di Dio?
Contro i galilei

„Mosè ha dato della differenza delle lingue una ragione superlativamente favolosa. Dice che i figli degli uomini, riunitisi, volevano fabbricare una città e, in essa, una gran torre; ma Dio dichiarò: qui bisogna scendere e confondere le loro lingue. - E, perché nessuno creda che io voglia darla ad intendere, leggiamo nel testo stesso di Mosè, quel che segue: «E dissero: "Orsù; fabbrichiamoci una città ed una torre, la cui cupola giunga fino al cielo; e facciamoci un nome prima di essere dispersi su tutta la faccia della terra". E scese il Signore a vedere la città e la torre, che i figli degli uomini edificavano. E disse il Signore: "Ecco, essi sono un medesimo popolo, e una medesima lingua hanno tutti; e questo cominciarono a fare; ed ora non resteranno dal compiere tutto ciò che hanno cominciato. Dunque: discendiamo là, e confondiamo la loro lingua, affinché non capisca l'uno la parola dell'altro". E li disperseil Signore Iddio su tutta la faccia della terra, ed essi cessarono di fabbricare la città e la torre».Poi volete che a questo crediamo; ma voi non credete a ciò che dice Omero degli Aloadi, che tre montagne meditavano di porre l'una sull'altra, «onde fosse ascendibile il cielo». Per me io dico che questo racconto è ugualmente favoloso che quello. Ma voi, che il primo accogliete, per qual ragione, in nome di Dio, respingete la favola di Omero? Poiché questo - credo - uomini ignoranti non lo capiscono: che, se anche tutte le genti che popolano la terra avessero la medesima voce e la medesima lingua, fabbricare una torre che arrivi fino al cielo non potrebbero affatto, quand'anche facessero mattoni di tutta quanta la terra. Mattoni ce ne vorrebbero infiniti di grandezza pari a tutta intera la terra per arrivare al solo cerchio della luna. Ammettiamo pure che tutte le genti si siano riunite parlando una stessa lingua ed abbiano ridotto in mattoni e cavato le pietre di tutta la terra; come potranno arrivare fino al cielo, se anche la loro opera dovesse stendersi più sottile di un filo allungato? In conclusione: voi che stimate vera una favola così evidentemente falsa, e pretendete che Dio abbia avuto paura della unità di voce degli uomini e per questo sia disceso a confonderne le lingue, oserete ancora menare vanto della vostra conoscenza di Dio?“

—  Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Contro i galilei

Help us translate English quotes

Discover interesting quotes and translate them.

Start translating

„A very weighty argument is this — namely, that neither does the light which descends from thence, chiefly upon the world, mix itself with anything, nor admit of dirtiness or pollution, but remains entirely, and in all things that are, free from defilement, admixture, and suffering.“

—  Julian (emperor)

Upon the Sovereign Sun (362)
Contesto: A very weighty argument is this — namely, that neither does the light which descends from thence, chiefly upon the world, mix itself with anything, nor admit of dirtiness or pollution, but remains entirely, and in all things that are, free from defilement, admixture, and suffering. Besides, we must pay attention to the other kinds of phenomena, both to the Intelligible, and yet more to the Sensible — whatever are connected with matter, or will manifest themselves in relation to our subject. <!-- Here, again, the Intelligible is the centre of the species that lie around the mighty Sun, through whose means the species connected with Matter are benefited, inasmuch as they would be unable either to exist, or to subsist, unless they be helped by him as regards their existence. Besides, is not he the author of the separation of Species and of the combination of Matter? He not merely allows himself to be mentally conceived, but to be an object of the sight, for the distribution of his rays over the whole world, and the unity of his light, demonstrate the creative and separating powers of his mode of action. And as there are still numerous visible benefits connected with the essence of this deity, which surround that which is intermediate between the Intelligible and the Sensible powers, let. us pass on to his final and visible conclusion. The first degree of his, contains as it were the model and the substance for a pattern to the Solar Angels who are stationed around the lowest world. After this comes that which is generative of things perceptible to Sense: of which the more refined part contains the source of heaven and the stars, whilst the inferior part superintends generation, containing from all eternity within itself the ungenerated essence of generation.

„Caesar, can there be anyone so dull and stupid as to take pains over jesting? I always thought that such pleasantries were a relaxation of the mind and a relief from pains and cares.“

—  Julian (emperor)

The Caesars (c. 361)
Contesto: "It is the season of the Kronia, during which the god allows us to make merry. But, my dear friend, as I have no talent for amusing or entertaining I must methinks take pains not to talk mere nonsense."
"But, Caesar, can there be anyone so dull and stupid as to take pains over jesting? I always thought that such pleasantries were a relaxation of the mind and a relief from pains and cares."
"Yes, and no doubt your view is correct, but that is not how the matter strikes me. For by nature I have no turn for raillery, or parody, or raising a laugh."

„Perhaps, therefore, the self-existent principle, which existed first in the Intelligible creation, and lastly in the Visible bodies of the heavens, is owner of the intermediate, self-created essence of the sovereign Sun, from which primal creative essence there descends upon the visible world the radiance which illuminates the universe.“

—  Julian (emperor)

Upon the Sovereign Sun (362)
Contesto: The one absolutely, the Intelligible, the ever Preexisting, comprehending all the universe together within the One — nay, more, is not the whole world One living thing — all and everywhere full of life and soul, perfect and made up out of parts likewise perfect? Now of this double unity the most perfect part (I mean of the Unity in the Intelligible World that comprehends all things in One, and of the Unity encompassing the Sensible World, that brings together all things into a single and perfect nature) is the perfection of the sovereign Sun, which is central and single, and placed in the middle of the intermediate Powers. <!-- But coming after this, there exists a certain connection in the Intelligible World with the Power that orders and arranges all things in one. Does not the essence of the Fifth Body, which is turned, as it were by a lathe, in a circle, move around the heavens, and is that which holds together all the parts, and binds them to one another, uniting what is naturally united amongst them and also those parts that mutually affect each other. These two essences, which are the causes of mutual attraction and of union (whereof the one manifests itself in the Intelligible, the other in the Sensible creation) does the Sun thus concentrate into one. Of the former he imitates this power of embracing and containing all things in the Intelligible creation, inasmuch as he proceeds from that source; whilst he governs the latter, that which is perceptible in the world of Sense. Perhaps, therefore, the self-existent principle, which existed first in the Intelligible creation, and lastly in the Visible bodies of the heavens, is owner of the intermediate, self-created essence of the sovereign Sun, from which primal creative essence there descends upon the visible world the radiance which illuminates the universe.

„But were one to discuss the numerous other qualities belonging to this god, he would never arrive to the end of them.“

—  Julian (emperor)

Upon the Sovereign Sun (362)
Contesto: But how many are the final causes of union, the most beautiful, which this deity contains within himself? The Sun, that is, Apollo, is "Leader of the Muses;" and inasmuch as he completes our life with good order, he produces in the world Æsculapius; for even before the world was, he had the latter by his side.
But were one to discuss the numerous other qualities belonging to this god, he would never arrive to the end of them.

„She, however, is joint cause with him, enthralling our souls by the aid of pleasure, whilst she sheds down from the aether upon the earth her rays so delightful and pure, more lustrous than gold itself.“

—  Julian (emperor)

Upon the Sovereign Sun (362)
Contesto: Unto men Athene gives good things — namely, wisdom, understanding, and the creative arts; and she dwells in their citadels, I suppose, as being the founder of civil government through the communication of her own wisdom.
Now for a few words about Aphrodite, whom the Phoenician theologians agree in making co-operate in the work of creation with the last-mentioned goddess — and I believe they are right. She, then, is the mingling together of the celestial deities, and of the harmony of the same, for the purposes of love and unification. For she being near to the Sun, and running her course together with him, and approaching close to him, she fills the heavens with a good temperament, she imparts to the earth the generative power, whilst she herself provides for the perpetuity of generation of animals, of which generation the Sovereign Sun contains the final efficient cause. She, however, is joint cause with him, enthralling our souls by the aid of pleasure, whilst she sheds down from the aether upon the earth her rays so delightful and pure, more lustrous than gold itself.

„They may hold their meetings, if they wish, and offer prayers according to their established use … and for the future, let all people live in harmony … Men should be taught and won over by reason, not by blows, insults, and corporal punishments.“

—  Julian (emperor)

Edict to the people of Bostra, as quoted in Documents of the Christian Church (1957) by Henry Bettenson <!-- Oxford University Press -->
General sources
Contesto: They are irreverent to the gods and disobedient to our edicts, lenient as they are. For we allow none of them to be dragged to the altars unwillingly... It is therefore my pleasure to announce and publish to all the people by this edict, that they must not abet the seditions of the clergy … They may hold their meetings, if they wish, and offer prayers according to their established use … and for the future, let all people live in harmony … Men should be taught and won over by reason, not by blows, insults, and corporal punishments. I therefore most earnestly admonish the adherents of the true religion not to injure or insult the Galilaeans in any way … Those who are in the wrong in matters of supreme importance are objects of pity rather than of hate...

„For this reason I believe that the light of the Sun bears the same relation to things visible as Truth does to things intelligible.“

—  Julian (emperor)

Upon the Sovereign Sun (362)
Contesto: That divine and all-beauteous World, which from the highest vault of Heaven down to the lowest Earth is held together by the immutable providence of God, and which has existed from all eternity, without creation, and shall be eternal for all time to come, and which is not regulated by anything, except approximately by the Fifth Body (of which the principle is the solar light) placed, as it were, on the second step below the world of intelligence; and finally by the means of the "Sovereign of all things, around whom all things stand." This Being, whether properly to be called "That which is above comprehension," or the "Type of things existing," or "The One," (inasmuch as Unity appears to be the most ancient of all things), or "The Good," as Plato regularly designates Him, This, then, is the Single Principle of all things, and which serves to the universe as a model of indescribable beauty, perfection, unity, and power. And after the pattern of the primary substance that dwells within the Principle, He hath sent forth out of Himself, and like in all things unto Himself, the Sun, a mighty god, made up of equal parts of intelligible and creative causes. And this is the sense of the divine Plato, where he writes, "You may say (replied I) that I mean the offspring of the Good, whom the Good has produced, similar to itself; in order that, what the Good is in the region of intelligence, and as regards things only appreciable by the mind, its offspring should be the same in the region that is visible, and in the things that are appreciable by the sight." For this reason I believe that the light of the Sun bears the same relation to things visible as Truth does to things intelligible. But this Whole, inasmuch as it emanates from the Model and "Idea" of the primal and supreme Good, and exists from all eternity around his immutable being, has received sovereignty also over the gods appreciable by the intellect alone, and communicates to them the same good things, (because they belong to the world of intelligence), as are poured down from the Supreme Good upon the other objects of Intelligence. For to these latter, the Supreme Good is the source, as I believe, of beauty, perfection, existence, and union; holding them together and illuminating them by its own virtue which is the "Idea" of the Good.

„Whither are we fleeing, my most valiant men?“

—  Julian (emperor)

Julian, to his fleeing troops at the Battle of Strasbourg, as recorded by Ammianus Marcellinus, in Book XVI of his history<!-- Loeb Classical Library -->. His army rallied and defeated the German forces. Here, the term "republic" was used in its literal Latin meaning to denote the Roman state.
General sources
Contesto: Whither are we fleeing, my most valiant men? Do you not know that flight never leads to safety, but shows the folly of a useless effort? Let us return to our companions, to be at least sharers in their coming glory, if it is without consideration that we are abandoning them as they fight for the Republic.

„The Hellenic religion does not yet prosper as I desire, and it is the fault of those who profess it; for the worship of the gods is on a splendid and magnificent scale, surpassing every prayer and every hope.“

—  Julian (emperor)

Letter to Arsacius, High-priest of Galatia (June? 362), as translated by Emily Wilmer Cave Wright, in The Works of the Emperor Julian, Volume III (1913)
General sources
Contesto: The Hellenic religion does not yet prosper as I desire, and it is the fault of those who profess it; for the worship of the gods is on a splendid and magnificent scale, surpassing every prayer and every hope. May Adrasteia pardon my words, for indeed no one, a little while ago, would have ventured even to pray for a change of such a sort or so complete within so short a time. Why, then, do we think that this is enough, why do we not observe that it is their benevolence to strangers, their care for the graves of the dead and the pretended holiness of their lives that have done most to increase atheism? I believe that we ought really and truly to practise every one of these virtues. And it is not enough for you alone to practise them, but so must all the priests in Galatia, without exception. … In every city establish frequent hostels in order that strangers may profit by our benevolence; I do not mean for our own people only, but for others also who are in need of money. I have but now made a plan by which you may be well provided for this; for I have given directions that 30,000 modii of corn shall be assigned every year for the whole of Galatia, and 60,000 pints of wine. I order that one-fifth of this be used for the poor who serve the priests, and the remainder be distributed by us to strangers and beggars. For it is disgraceful that, when no Jew ever has to beg, and the impious Galilaeans support not only their own poor but ours as well, all men see that our people lack aid from us. Teach those of the Hellenic faith to contribute to public service of this sort, and the Hellenic villages to offer their first fruits to the gods; and accustom those who love the Hellenic religion to these good works by teaching them that this was our practice of old.

„One indeed is the Creator of all things, but many are the creative powers revolving in the heavens“

—  Julian (emperor)

Upon the Sovereign Sun (362)
Contesto: One indeed is the Creator of all things, but many are the creative powers revolving in the heavens; we must, therefore, place the influence of the Sun as intermediate with respect to each single operation affecting the earth. Moreover, the principle productive of Life is vastly superabundant in the Intelligible World; our world, also, is evidently full of generative life. It is therefore clear that the life-producing power of the sovereign Sun is intermediate between these two, since the phenomena of Nature bear testimony to the fact; for some kinds of things the Sun brings to perfection, others of them he brings to pass, others he regulates, others he excites, and there exists nothing that, without the creative influence of the Sun, comes to light and is born.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

Autori simili

Publio Cornelio Tacito photo
Publio Cornelio Tacito48
storico, oratore e senatore romano
Marco Aurelio photo
Marco Aurelio83
imperatore romano
Lucio Anneo Seneca photo
Lucio Anneo Seneca157
filosofo, poeta, politico e drammaturgo romano
Eneo Domizio Ulpiano photo
Eneo Domizio Ulpiano11
politico e giurista romano
Claudio Claudiano photo
Claudio Claudiano3
poeta romano
Publio Ovidio Nasone photo
Publio Ovidio Nasone104
poeta romano
Quinto Ennio photo
Quinto Ennio26
poeta, drammaturgo e scrittore romano
Tito Lívio photo
Tito Lívio173
storico romano
Gaio Plinio Secondo photo
Gaio Plinio Secondo25
scrittore romano
Decimo Giunio Giovenale photo
Decimo Giunio Giovenale36
poeta e oratore romano
Anniversari di oggi
Charlie Chaplin photo
Charlie Chaplin95
attore, regista, sceneggiatore, compositore e produttore br… 1889 - 1977
Papa Benedetto XVI photo
Papa Benedetto XVI302
265° vescovo di Roma e papa della Chiesa cattolica 1927
Mathias Malzieu photo
Mathias Malzieu33
cantante, musicista e scrittore francese 1974
Alexis De Tocqueville photo
Alexis De Tocqueville44
filosofo, politico e storico francese 1805 - 1859
Altri 81 anniversari oggi
Autori simili
Publio Cornelio Tacito photo
Publio Cornelio Tacito48
storico, oratore e senatore romano
Marco Aurelio photo
Marco Aurelio83
imperatore romano
Lucio Anneo Seneca photo
Lucio Anneo Seneca157
filosofo, poeta, politico e drammaturgo romano
Eneo Domizio Ulpiano photo
Eneo Domizio Ulpiano11
politico e giurista romano
Claudio Claudiano photo
Claudio Claudiano3
poeta romano