Frasi di Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Flavio Claudio Giuliano photo
9   0

Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Data di nascita: 6. Novembre 331
Data di morte: 26. Giugno 363

Pubblicità

Flavio Claudio Giuliano è stato un imperatore e filosofo romano, l'ultimo sovrano dichiaratamente pagano, che tentò, senza successo, di restaurare la religione romana dopo che essa era stata abbandonata a favore del cristianesimo da suo zio Costantino I e dal figlio Costanzo II.

Membro della dinastia costantiniana , fu Cesare in Gallia dal 355; un pronunciamento militare nel 361 e la contemporanea morte del cugino Costanzo II lo resero imperatore fino alla morte, avvenuta nel 363 durante la campagna militare in Persia.

Per distinguerlo da Didio Giuliano o da Giuliano di Pannonia, usurpatore dell'epoca di Carino, fu chiamato anche Giuliano II, Giuliano Augusto, Giuliano il Filosofo o Giuliano l'Apostata dai cristiani, che lo presentarono come un persecutore ma, per quanto personalmente avverso al cristianesimo, nel suo regno vi fu un'iniziale tolleranza; non ci furono comunque mai persecuzioni anticristiane e venne praticata la tolleranza nei confronti di tutte le religioni, comprese le diverse dottrine cristiane e verso l'ebraismo, al punto di ordinare la ricostruzione del tempio ebraico di Gerusalemme secondo un programma di ripristino e rafforzamento dei culti religiosi locali; il tentativo di ricostruzione però venne abbandonato.

Giuliano scrisse numerose opere di carattere filosofico, religioso, polemico e celebrativo, in molte delle quali criticò il cristianesimo. La sua ispirazione filosofica fu in gran parte neoplatonica.

Autori simili

Lucio Elio Cesare photo
Lucio Elio Cesare1
politico romano
Publio Cornelio Tacito photo
Publio Cornelio Tacito46
storico, oratore e senatore romano
Tito Flavio Vespasiano photo
Tito Flavio Vespasiano2
imperatore romano
 Nerone photo
Nerone2
imperatore romano
Marco Aurelio photo
Marco Aurelio63
imperatore romano
Costantino XI di Bisanzio photo
Costantino XI di Bisanzio2
imperatore bizantino
 Augusto photo
Augusto9
primo imperatore romano antico
Lucio Anneo Seneca photo
Lucio Anneo Seneca157
filosofo, poeta, politico e drammaturgo romano
Carlo Magno photo
Carlo Magno1
re dei Franchi e dei Longobardi e imperatore del Sacro R...
Eneo Domizio Ulpiano photo
Eneo Domizio Ulpiano11
politico e giurista romano

Frasi Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Pubblicità

„Mosè ha dato della differenza delle lingue una ragione superlativamente favolosa. Dice che i figli degli uomini, riunitisi, volevano fabbricare una città e, in essa, una gran torre; ma Dio dichiarò: qui bisogna scendere e confondere le loro lingue. - E, perché nessuno creda che io voglia darla ad intendere, leggiamo nel testo stesso di Mosè, quel che segue: «E dissero: "Orsù; fabbrichiamoci una città ed una torre, la cui cupola giunga fino al cielo; e facciamoci un nome prima di essere dispersi su tutta la faccia della terra". E scese il Signore a vedere la città e la torre, che i figli degli uomini edificavano. E disse il Signore: "Ecco, essi sono un medesimo popolo, e una medesima lingua hanno tutti; e questo cominciarono a fare; ed ora non resteranno dal compiere tutto ciò che hanno cominciato. Dunque: discendiamo là, e confondiamo la loro lingua, affinché non capisca l'uno la parola dell'altro". E li disperseil Signore Iddio su tutta la faccia della terra, ed essi cessarono di fabbricare la città e la torre».Poi volete che a questo crediamo; ma voi non credete a ciò che dice Omero degli Aloadi, che tre montagne meditavano di porre l'una sull'altra, «onde fosse ascendibile il cielo». Per me io dico che questo racconto è ugualmente favoloso che quello. Ma voi, che il primo accogliete, per qual ragione, in nome di Dio, respingete la favola di Omero? Poiché questo - credo - uomini ignoranti non lo capiscono: che, se anche tutte le genti che popolano la terra avessero la medesima voce e la medesima lingua, fabbricare una torre che arrivi fino al cielo non potrebbero affatto, quand'anche facessero mattoni di tutta quanta la terra. Mattoni ce ne vorrebbero infiniti di grandezza pari a tutta intera la terra per arrivare al solo cerchio della luna. Ammettiamo pure che tutte le genti si siano riunite parlando una stessa lingua ed abbiano ridotto in mattoni e cavato le pietre di tutta la terra; come potranno arrivare fino al cielo, se anche la loro opera dovesse stendersi più sottile di un filo allungato? In conclusione: voi che stimate vera una favola così evidentemente falsa, e pretendete che Dio abbia avuto paura della unità di voce degli uomini e per questo sia disceso a confonderne le lingue, oserete ancora menare vanto della vostra conoscenza di Dio?“

—  Flavio Claudio Giuliano

Pubblicità

„She, however, is joint cause with him, enthralling our souls by the aid of pleasure, whilst she sheds down from the aether upon the earth her rays so delightful and pure, more lustrous than gold itself.“

—  Julian (emperor)
Context: Unto men Athene gives good things — namely, wisdom, understanding, and the creative arts; and she dwells in their citadels, I suppose, as being the founder of civil government through the communication of her own wisdom. Now for a few words about Aphrodite, whom the Phoenician theologians agree in making co-operate in the work of creation with the last-mentioned goddess — and I believe they are right. She, then, is the mingling together of the celestial deities, and of the harmony of the same, for the purposes of love and unification. For she being near to the Sun, and running her course together with him, and approaching close to him, she fills the heavens with a good temperament, she imparts to the earth the generative power, whilst she herself provides for the perpetuity of generation of animals, of which generation the Sovereign Sun contains the final efficient cause. She, however, is joint cause with him, enthralling our souls by the aid of pleasure, whilst she sheds down from the aether upon the earth her rays so delightful and pure, more lustrous than gold itself.

„And Nature and Soul, and all that at any time exists, all these, and in all places, does he bring to perfection; and after having marshalled so vast a host of deities into one governing unity, he has given to them Athene, or Providence“

—  Julian (emperor)
Context: Wherefore should I mention to you Horus, and the other names of gods, all of them belonging in reality to the Sun? For we men have gained our notion of the god from the works which the same god actually works — he that hath made the universal heaven perfect through his Intelligible blessings, and given to the same a share of his Intelligible beauty. And beginning from that point, himself wholly and partially by the giving of good men … for they superintend every motion as far as the extremest limits of the universe. And Nature and Soul, and all that at any time exists, all these, and in all places, does he bring to perfection; and after having marshalled so vast a host of deities into one governing unity, he has given to them Athene, or Providence; who, mythology says, sprung forth out of the head of Jupiter; but whom we assert to have been projected entire out of the entire Sovereign Sun, for she was contained within him, in this particular dissenting from the legend, in that we do not hold her to have sprung out of the topmost part, but all entire, and out of the entire god.

„Grant unto all men happiness, of which the sum and substance is the knowledge of the gods; and to the Roman people universally, first and foremost to wash away from themselves the stain of atheism, and in addition to this, grant them propitious Fortune, that shall assist them in governing the empire for many thousands of years to come! To myself grant for the fruit of my devotion to thee — Truth in belief concerning the gods, the attainment of perfection in religious rites, and in all the undertakings which we attempt as regards warlike or military measures, valour coupled with good luck, and the termination of my life to be without pain, and happy in the good hope of a departure for your abodes!“

—  Julian (emperor)
Context: !-- Who is so thick-headed as not to understand that through Hermes and Aphrodite are invoked all things in all places that contain the cause of the universality and various forms of generation, which is the proper subject of my argument? Is not this the Attis, who at first is called insane, and then sane, in consequence of his castration? Insane because he chose for himself the realm of Matter, and superintends the work of generation; but sane because he hath modelled this refuse into Beauty, and hath wrought therein so great a transformation, that no skill or craft of man can imitate the same. But what shall be the conclusion of my theme? Verily a Hymn of praise unto the goddess. --> O Mother of gods and men, assister and colleague of mighty Jove! O source of the Intelligible Powers! Thou that keepest thy course in unison with the simple essences of things intelligible; thou that hast received out of all the universal Cause, and impartest it to the Intelligible world! Goddess, giver of life, Mother, Providence, and Maker of our souls! Thou that lovest the mighty Bacchus; who didst preserve Attis when he was cast forth, and didst recall him to thyself after he had sunk down into the cave of the earth; thou that art the beginning of all Good unto the Intelligible Powers, and that fillest the world with all the objects of Sense, and grantest all good things, in all places, unto mankind! Grant unto all men happiness, of which the sum and substance is the knowledge of the gods; and to the Roman people universally, first and foremost to wash away from themselves the stain of atheism, and in addition to this, grant them propitious Fortune, that shall assist them in governing the empire for many thousands of years to come! To myself grant for the fruit of my devotion to thee — Truth in belief concerning the gods, the attainment of perfection in religious rites, and in all the undertakings which we attempt as regards warlike or military measures, valour coupled with good luck, and the termination of my life to be without pain, and happy in the good hope of a departure for your abodes!

Pubblicità

„The one absolutely, the Intelligible, the ever Preexisting, comprehending all the universe together within the One — nay, more, is not the whole world One living thing — all and everywhere full of life and soul, perfect and made up out of parts likewise perfect?“

—  Julian (emperor)
Context: The one absolutely, the Intelligible, the ever Preexisting, comprehending all the universe together within the One — nay, more, is not the whole world One living thing — all and everywhere full of life and soul, perfect and made up out of parts likewise perfect? Now of this double unity the most perfect part (I mean of the Unity in the Intelligible World that comprehends all things in One, and of the Unity encompassing the Sensible World, that brings together all things into a single and perfect nature) is the perfection of the sovereign Sun, which is central and single, and placed in the middle of the intermediate Powers. <!-- But coming after this, there exists a certain connection in the Intelligible World with the Power that orders and arranges all things in one. Does not the essence of the Fifth Body, which is turned, as it were by a lathe, in a circle, move around the heavens, and is that which holds together all the parts, and binds them to one another, uniting what is naturally united amongst them and also those parts that mutually affect each other. These two essences, which are the causes of mutual attraction and of union (whereof the one manifests itself in the Intelligible, the other in the Sensible creation) does the Sun thus concentrate into one. Of the former he imitates this power of embracing and containing all things in the Intelligible creation, inasmuch as he proceeds from that source; whilst he governs the latter, that which is perceptible in the world of Sense. Perhaps, therefore, the self-existent principle, which existed first in the Intelligible creation, and lastly in the Visible bodies of the heavens, is owner of the intermediate, self-created essence of the sovereign Sun, from which primal creative essence there descends upon the visible world the radiance which illuminates the universe.

„With regard to which, though we are dull of sight, yet let us strive to clear away the mist from the eyes of the soul.“

—  Julian (emperor)
Context: To what purpose, pray, exist all these things that be born? Whence come male and female? Whence the difference in kind of all things that be, amongst visible species, unless there be certain pre-existing and previously established Reasons and Causes subsisting beforehand, in the nature of a pattern? With regard to which, though we are dull of sight, yet let us strive to clear away the mist from the eyes of the soul.

„Men's works also are naturally perishable and mutable and subject to every kind of alteration. But since God is eternal, it follows that of such sort are his ordinances also.“

—  Julian (emperor)
Context: Men's works also are naturally perishable and mutable and subject to every kind of alteration. But since God is eternal, it follows that of such sort are his ordinances also. And since they are such, they are either the natures of things or are accordant with the nature of things. For how could nature be at variance with the ordinance of God? How could it fall out of harmony therewith?

„While he smells like nectar, you smell like a goat.“

—  Julian (emperor)
Context: Who and from where are you Dionysus? Since by the true Bacchus, I do not recognize you; I know only the son of Zeus. While he smells like nectar, you smell like a goat. Can it be then that the Celts because of lack of grapes Made you from cereals? Therefore one should call you Demetrius, not Dionysus, rather wheat born and Bromus, Not Bromius. As quoted in The Barbarian's Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe (2005) by Max Nelson, p. 28. In this epigram, Julian mocked the beer of the Germans and Celts as disgusting in comparison with wine.

Avanti
Anniversari di oggi
Erri De Luca photo
Erri De Luca238
scrittore, traduttore e poeta italiano 1950
Nereo Rocco photo
Nereo Rocco12
allenatore di calcio e calciatore italiano 1912 - 1979
Jean Daniélou photo
Jean Daniélou30
teologo e cardinale francese 1905 - 1974
Bernardino da Siena photo
Bernardino da Siena7
religioso, teologo e santo italiano 1380 - 1444
Altri 85 anniversari oggi
Autori simili
Lucio Elio Cesare photo
Lucio Elio Cesare1
politico romano
Publio Cornelio Tacito photo
Publio Cornelio Tacito46
storico, oratore e senatore romano
Tito Flavio Vespasiano photo
Tito Flavio Vespasiano2
imperatore romano
 Nerone photo
Nerone2
imperatore romano
Marco Aurelio photo
Marco Aurelio63
imperatore romano